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    • Key People For Adhd Children

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      JOSEPH Biederman
      bipolar disorder attention deficit adults adhd
      Stephen V Faraone∗
      hyperactivity disorder attention deficit children adhd
      Russell A Barkley
      hyperactivity disorder attention deficit hyperactive children
      James M Swanson
      hyperactivity disorder children adhd attention deficit
      children adhd hyperactivity disorder attention deficit
      William E Pelham
      children adhd hyperactivity disorder attention deficit

      Comorbid anxiety and depression in school-aged children with attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) and selfreported symptoms of ADHD, anxiety, and depression among parents of school-aged chi


      BACKGROUND: Attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) is a common psychiatric disorder in children that can extend into adulthood and that is often associated with a variety of comorbid psychiatric disorders.

      AIM: Assess the comorbidity of ADHD with anxiety disorders and depressive disorders in school-aged children, and the relationship of the severity of ADHD, anxiety, and depressive symptoms in children who have ADHD with the severity of the corresponding symptoms in their parents.

      METHODS: A two-stage screening process identified children 7-10 years of age with and without ADHD treated at the Xin Hua Hospital in Shanghai. ADHD and other DSM-IV diagnoses were determined by a senior clinician using the Schedule for Affective Disorder and Schizophrenia for School-Aged Children (K-SADS-PL). One parent for each enrolled child completed three self-report scales: the ADHD Adult Self Report Scale (ASRS), the State-Trait Anxiety Inventory (STAI), and the Beck Depression Inventory (BDI). In total 135 children with ADHD and 65 control group children without ADHD were enrolled; parents for 94 of the children with ADHD and 63 of the children without ADHD completed the parental assessment scales.

      RESULTS: Among the 135 children with ADHD, 27% had a comorbid anxiety disorder, 18% had a comorbid depressive disorder, and another 15% had both comorbid anxiety and depressive disorders. Parents of children with ADHD self-reported more severe ADHD inattention symptoms than parents of children without ADHD and were more likely to meet criteria for adult ADHD. Mothers (but not fathers) of children with ADHD had significantly more severe trait anxiety and depressive symptoms than mothers of children without ADHD. Among children with ADHD, the severity of ADHD symptoms was not significantly correlated with the severity of ADHD symptoms in parents, but depressive symptoms and anxiety symptoms in the children were significantly correlated with the corresponding symptoms in the parents.

      CONCLUSION: School-aged children with ADHD commonly suffer from comorbid anxiety and depressive disorders, and the severity of these symptoms parallels the level of anxiety and depressive symptoms in their parents. Self-reported symptoms of ADHD are significantly more common in parents of children with ADHD than in parents of children without ADHD. Longitudinal studies are needed to disentangle the genetic, biological, and social factors responsible for these complex inter-relationships.

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