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    • Preseeding with autologous fibroblasts improves endothelialization of glutaraldehyde-fixed porcine aortic valves: Influence Statistics

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      Concepts for whichthey havehas direct influence:Aortic valves,Autologous fibroblasts,Aortic valve,Endothelial cells,Citric acid,Endothelial cell,Porcine aortic,Cell adhesion.

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      Preseeding with autologous fibroblasts improves endothelialization of glutaraldehyde-fixed porcine aortic valves

      Abstract

      OBJECTIVE: This study represents the development of a treatment and seeding procedure to improve endothelial cellular adhesion on glutaraldehyde-fixed valves.

      METHODS: Porcine aortic valves were fixed with 0.2% glutaraldehyde. Wall pieces of these valves had either no additional treatment (n = 4), incubation in M199 Earle (1x), with sodium carbonate at 2.2 g/L without l-glutamine for 24 hours (n = 4), or additional pretreatment with 5%, 10%, or 15% citric acid (three groups, n = 4 each). Thereafter the pieces were washed and buffered to a physiologic pH. This was followed by seeding of human endothelial cells (5 x 10(6) cells). On the basis of the results of these pilot tests, complete glutaraldehyde-fixed aortic roots treated with 10% citric acid were subjected to cell seeding. The valves were seeded with endothelial cells (4.3 x 10(6) cells) either alone (n = 4) or in combination with preseeding of autologous fibroblasts (2.4 x 10(7) cells, n = 4). After each seeding procedure specimens of the free wall of the grafts were taken. In addition, one leaflet was taken for histologic examination after endothelial cell seeding, after 7 days, and after 21 days. Finally, two commercially available stentless aortic valve prostheses (Freestyle; Medtronic, Inc, Minneapolis, Minn) were treated with 10% citric acid and seeded with human fibroblasts and endothelial cells. Specimen were taken according to the glutaraldehyde-fixed aortic roots. Specimen of all experiments were examined with scanning electron microscopy. Frozen sections were stained immunohistochemically for collagen IV, factor VIII, and CD31.

      RESULTS: On untreated glutaraldehyde-fixed aortic wall pieces, only poor adhesion (24%) was seen. No viable cells were found after 1 week. Cellular adhesion was best on aortic wall pieces pretreated with 10% citric acid. After 7 days, the cells formed a confluent layer. Endothelial cell seeding on citric acid-treated complete aortic valves showed 45% adhesion, but no confluent layer was found after 1 week. Preseeding of these valves with autologous fibroblasts resulted in an endothelial cellular adhesion of 76% and a confluent endothelial cell layer after 7 days. The layer remained stable for at least 21 days. Results of staining for collagen IV, factor VIII, and CD31 were positive on the luminal side of these valves, indicating the synthesis of matrix proteins and viability of the cells. Pretreatment of commercially available porcine valves with 10% citric acid and preseeding with autologous fibroblasts followed by endothelial cell seeding resulted in an adhesion of 78%. The cells formed a confluent cell layer after 7 days.

      CONCLUSIONS: Pretreatment of glutaraldehyde-fixed porcine aortic valves with citric acid established a surface more suitable for cellular attachment. Preseeding these valves with autologous fibroblasts resulted in a confluent endothelial cell layer on the luminal surface. Flow tests and animal experiments are necessary for further assessment of durability and shear stress resistance.

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