William L Young†

William L Young†

Professor of Neurology and Neurological Sciences, Director, Stanford Stroke Center, Stanford School of Medicine, Stanford, CA, USA | Professor of Neurology and Radiology, ...

KOL Resume for William L Young†  (pulmonary vessels, disease, fistula, arteriovenous, arteriovenous fistula)


Professor of Neurology and Neurological Sciences, Director, Stanford Stroke Center, Stanford School of Medicine, Stanford, CA, USA

Department of Anesthesiology,

Executive Director, McKnight Brain Institute

Center for Cerebrovascular Research,


Department of Anesthesia and Perioperative Care and Center for Cerebrovascular Research, University of California, San Francisco; Department of Neurological Surgery, University of California, San Francisco; Department of Neurology, University of California, San Francisco.

Neurological Surgery.

Anesthesia, and.

3Center for Cerebrovascular Research, University of California, San Francisco, California

2Anesthesia and Perioperative Care, and the


Department of Anesthesia and Perioperative Care, Center for Cerebrovascular Research, University of California, San Francisco, San Francisco, CA, USA

4Anesthesia and Perioperative Care,

7Center for Cerebrovascular Research, University of California, San Francisco, California; and


Department of Neurological Surgery, University of California San Francisco, San Francisco, CA (W.L.Y.)

Neurology, University of California, San Francisco, California

Anesthesia & Perioperative Care, and


From the Center for Cerebrovascular Research (E.J.W., H.S., F.S., V.D., K.J., W.L.Y.), Department of Anesthesia and Perioperative Care (G.A.); Departments of Neurological Surgery (W.L.Y.) and Neurology (W.L.Y.), University of California San Francisco, San Francisco, California, USA.

Center for Cerebrovascular Research, Department of Anesthesia and Perioperative Care, University of California, San Francisco, San Francisco, CA, USA

Brain Vascular Malformation Consortium, Rare Disease Clinical Research Network**

Department of Neurology, University of California–San Francisco, San Francisco, California

Neurology (H.J.F., W.L.Y., J.D.E., C.F.D., R.T.H., V.V.H.)


Prominent publications by William L Young†

KOL Index score: 19681

BACKGROUND: The clinical benefit of preventive eradication of unruptured brain arteriovenous malformations remains uncertain. A Randomised trial of Unruptured Brain Arteriovenous malformations (ARUBA) aims to compare the risk of death and symptomatic stroke in patients with an unruptured brain arteriovenous malformation who are allocated to either medical management alone or medical management with interventional therapy.

METHODS: Adult patients (≥18 years) with an unruptured brain ...

Known for Medical Management |  Interventional Therapy |  Unruptured Brain |  Stroke Patients |  Arteriovenous Malformations
KOL Index score: 16426

Widely used tetracycline antibiotics affect many cellular functions relevant to human vascular disease including cell proliferation, migration, and matrix remodeling. We examined whether minocycline inhibited human aortic smooth muscle cell (HASMC) migration induced by vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF). After the establishment of an optimal dose, minocycline treated HASMC were exposed to VEGF. HASMC migration, matrix metalloproteinase (MMP)-2 and MMP-9 activities, ...

Known for Smooth Muscle |  Cell Migration |  Vascular Endothelial |  Erk1 2 |  Matrix Metalloproteinase
KOL Index score: 13436

OBJECTIVE: Hypothermia has been demonstrated to protect the brain from ischemic or traumatic injury. Previous efforts to induce cerebral hypothermia have relied on techniques requiring total body cooling that have resulted in serious cardiovascular derangements. A technique to selectively cool the brain, without systemic hypothermia, may have applications for the treatment of neurological disease.

METHODS: After induction of general anesthesia in 12 baboons, the right common carotid ...

Known for Cerebral Hypothermia |  Carotid Artery |  30 Minutes |  25 Degrees |  3 Hours
KOL Index score: 13359

BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE: Decisions on invasive arteriovenous malformation (AVM) treatment are currently based on natural-course risk estimates of AVM bleeding and assumptions on morbidity from cerebral hemorrhage in general. However, morbidity of AVM hemorrhage has rarely been reported. We sought to assess the morbidity of intracranial hemorrhage in patients with cerebral AVMs.

METHODS: From a prospective AVM database, 119 patients were analyzed: 115 had a hemorrhage as the diagnostic ...

Known for Intracranial Hemorrhage |  Cerebral Arteriovenous |  Neurological Deficit |  Morbidity Avm |  Rankin Scale
KOL Index score: 13236

BACKGROUND: The authors hypothesized that if nitric oxide (NO) was a determinant of background cerebrovascular tone, intracarotid infusion of NG-monomethyl-L-arginine (L-NMMA), a NO synthase (NOS) inhibitor, would decrease cerebral blood flow (CBF) and intracarotid L-arginine would reverse its effect.

METHODS: In angiographically normal cerebral hemispheres, after the initial dose-escalation studies (protocol 1), the authors determined the effect of intracarotid L-NMMA (50 mg/min for 5 ...

Known for Intracarotid Infusion |  Nitric Oxide |  Human Subjects |  Cerebral Blood Flow |  Cbf Lnmma
KOL Index score: 13041

Evolution of intracranial aneurysms is known to be related to hemodynamic forces such as wall shear stress (WSS) and maximum shear stress (MSS). Estimation of these parameters can be performed using numerical simulations with computational fluid dynamics (CFD), but can also be directly measured with magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) using a time-dependent 3D phase-contrast sequence with encoding of each of the three components of the velocity vectors (7D-MRV). To study the accuracy of ...

Known for Computational Fluid Dynamics |  Flow Pattern |  Velocity Fields |  Magnetic Resonance |  Intracranial Aneurysms
KOL Index score: 12855

BACKGROUND: Brain arteriovenous malformations (bAVMs) represent a high risk for hemorrhagic stroke, leading to significant neurological morbidity and mortality in young adults. The etiopathogenesis of bAVM remains unclear. Research progress has been hampered by the lack of animal models. Hereditary Hemorrhagic Telangiectasia (HHT) patients with haploinsufficiency of endoglin (ENG, HHT1) or activin receptor-like kinase 1 (ALK1, HHT2) have a higher incidence of bAVM than the general ...

Known for Adult Mouse |  Cerebrovascular Dysplasia |  Vegf Stimulation |  Eng Deletion |  Proteins Malformations
KOL Index score: 12728

OBJECT: Patients with posterior fossa arteriovenous malformations (AVMs) are more likely to present with hemorrhage than those with supratentorial AVMs. Observed patients subject to the AVM natural history should be informed of the individualized effects of AVM characteristics on the clinical course following a new, first-time hemorrhage. The authors hypothesize that the debilitating effects of first-time bleeding from an AVM in a previously intact patient with an unruptured AVM are more ...

Known for Posterior Fossa |  Supratentorial Avms |  Avm Hemorrhage |  Severe Outcome |  Hematoma Volume
KOL Index score: 12196

BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE: Excessive degradation of the vascular matrix by matrix metalloproteinases (MMPs) can lead to structural instability of vessels. In this study we examined the expression of MMPs and tissue inhibitors of metalloproteinases (TIMPs) in brain arteriovenous malformations (BAVMs).

METHODS: We performed gelatin zymography for MMPs and Western blot for MMP-9, MMP-2, TIMP-1, TIMP-2, TIMP-3, and TIMP-4. MMP-9 expression was localized by immunohistochemistry.


Known for Matrix Metalloproteinases |  Arteriovenous Malformations |  Tissue Inhibitors |  Abnormal Expression |  Mmp9 Timp1
KOL Index score: 12151

Computational fluid dynamics (CFD) methods can be used to compute the velocity field in patient-specific vascular geometries for pulsatile physiological flow. Those simulations require geometric and hemodynamic boundary values. The purpose of this study is to demonstrate that CFD models constructed from patient-specific magnetic resonance (MR) angiography and velocimetry data predict flow fields that are in good agreement with in vivo measurements and therefore can provide valuable ...

Known for Numerical Simulations |  Cerebral Aneurysms |  Flow Fields |  Cfd Models |  Vivo Measurements
KOL Index score: 12065

Activation of α-7 nicotinic acetylcholine receptor (α-7 nAchR) has a neuro-protective effect on ischemic and hemorrhagic stroke. However, the underlying mechanism is not completely understood. We hypothesized that α-7 nAchR agonist protects brain injury after ischemic stroke through reduction of pro-inflammatory macrophages (M1) and oxidative stress. C57BL/6 mice were treated with PHA568487 (PHA, α-7 nAchR agonist), methyllycaconitine (MLA, nAchR antagonist), or saline immediately and 24 ...

Known for Oxidative Stress |  Nicotinic Acetylcholine Receptor |  Ischemic Stroke |  Microglia Macrophages |  Brain Injury
KOL Index score: 11869

OBJECTIVE: Endovascular management of complex intracranial aneurysms is increasingly being considered as an alternative to standard surgical clipping. However, little attention has been paid to the complementary nature of surgery and endovascular therapy.

METHODS: Between September 1992 and May 1997, 12 patients with complex intracranial aneurysms were treated with combined operative and endovascular methods. Seven patients demonstrated subarachnoid hemorrhage (two of Grade II, two of ...

Known for Intracranial Aneurysms |  Patients Subarachnoid Hemorrhage |  Endovascular Therapy |  Surgical Clipping |  Cerebral Artery
KOL Index score: 11607

Nanostructured biomaterials have tremendous potential for tissue engineering. However, the performance and integration of the nanomaterials in vivo are not well understood. A challenge in vascular tissue engineering is to develop optimal scaffolds and establish expandable cell sources for the construction of tissue-engineered vascular grafts that are nonthrombogenic and have long-term patency. Here, we used tissue-engineered vascular grafts as a model to demonstrate the potential of ...

Known for Antithrombogenic Property |  Vascular Grafts |  Nanofibrous Scaffolds |  Mesenchymal Stem |  Bone Marrow
KOL Index score: 11560

Elevated activities of matrix metalloproteinases (MMPs) following ischemic stroke have been shown to mediate ischemic injury as well as neurovascular remodeling. The extracellular MMP inducer (EMMPRIN) is a 58-kDa cell surface glycoprotein, which has been known to play a key regulatory role for MMP activities. The roles of EMMPRIN in stroke injury are not clearly understood. In this study, we investigated changes of EMMPRIN in a mouse model of permanent focal cerebral ischemia, and ...

Known for Cerebral Ischemia |  Emmprin Expression |  Ischemic Stroke |  Mouse Model |  Matrix Metalloproteinases


William L Young†: Influence Statistics

Sample of concepts for which William L Young† is among the top experts in the world.
Concept World rank
brain avm pathogenesis #1
nppb patients #1
bto pco #1
doseranging study cbf #1
investigators vascular beds #1
12 map #1
neo pyr #1
cbf verapamil adult #1
malformation study #1
paper injury #1
bavm female follow #1
occlusion deflation #1
2year experience treatment #1
133xe cbf #1
obese patients sufentanil #1
giant cerebral aneurysm #1
ang2 phosphatidylinositol #1
ultrashort onset #1
carotid endarterectomy computer #1
admission bioclinical #1
tissue avm #1
321 150 #1
pco log rank #1
nitroprusside doses #1
simulated occlusion #1
flow 223 ± #1
telangiectasia brain avf #1
doses intracarotid nitroprusside #1
extranidal circulation tau #1
pyr duration #1
lesions active angiogenesis #1
animals cerebral temperature #1
avm resection patients #1
new york cpmc #1
cbf intracarotid #1
nppb patients cohort #1
brain systemic hypothermia #1
hemispheric cbf #1
infusion ferumoxytol #1
nidus edge #1
28 surgical #1
doxacurium anticonvulsants #1
intracarotid nitroprusside #1
avm compartment #1
ica occlusion cbf #1
artery hypothermia #1
eng2f 2f #1
brain vascular malformations #1
sustained hemodynamic stresses #1
macrophages wall #1

Key People For Arteriovenous Malformations

Top KOLs in the world
Robert Frederich Spetzler
cavernous malformations subarachnoid hemorrhage intracranial aneurysms
William L Young†
arteriovenous malformations cerebral blood flow intracranial hemorrhage
Douglas S Kondziolka
stereotactic radiosurgery brain metastases gamma knife
Neil A Martin
intracranial pressure traumatic brain injury arteriovenous malformations
Lawrence Dade Lunsford
stereotactic radiosurgery gamma knife brain metastases
John Charles Flickinger
stereotactic radiosurgery gamma knife brain metastases

William L Young†:Expert Impact

Concepts for whichWilliam L Young†has direct influence:Arteriovenous malformations,  Cerebral blood flow,  Blood flow,  Brain arteriovenous,  Arteriovenous malformation,  Cerebral blood,  Adult mouse,  Venous hypertension.

William L Young†:KOL impact

Concepts related to the work of other authors for whichfor which William L Young† has influence:Arteriovenous malformations,  Intracranial aneurysms,  Ischemic stroke,  Blood flow,  Subarachnoid hemorrhage,  Endothelial cells,  Endovascular treatment.



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Professor of Neurology and Neurological Sciences, Director, Stanford Stroke Center, Stanford School of Medicine, Stanford, CA, USA | Professor of Neurology and Radiology, Massachusetts General Hospital, Harvard Medical School, Boston, MA, USA | Profe

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