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    • Brain Edema
    • Hypothermia Attenuates...
    • Hypothermia attenuates oxidative/nitrosative stress, encephalopathy and brain edema in acute (ischemic) liver failure: Influence Statistics

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      Concepts for whichthey havehas direct influence:Brain edema,Alf rats,Nitrosative stress,Liver failure,Oxidative nitrosative stress,Oxidative stress,Coma stages,Coma stages encephalopathy.

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      Hypothermia attenuates oxidative/nitrosative stress, encephalopathy and brain edema in acute (ischemic) liver failure

      Abstract

      Encephalopathy and brain edema are serious complications of acute liver failure (ALF). The precise pathophysiologic mechanisms responsible have not been fully elucidated but it has been suggested that oxidative/nitrosative stress is involved. In the present study we evaluated the role of oxidative/nitrosative stress in the pathogenesis of hepatic encephalopathy and brain edema in rats with ALF resulting from hepatic devascularization. We also studied the effect of hypothermia, a treatment previously shown to delay the progression of encephalopathy and the onset of brain edema, on ALF-induced oxidative stress. ALF rats were sacrificed at precoma and coma stages of encephalopathy along with their appropriate sham-operated controls. Hypothermic ALF rats were sacrificed in parallel with normothermic comatose ALF rats. Nitric oxide production in plasma and brain was assessed indirectly by measuring the level of its stable end products, nitrite/nitrate (NOx), using the Griess reagent. Expression of nitric oxide synthase (NOS) isoforms and heme oxygenase-1 (HO-1) were measured using real-time quantitative PCR, Western blot analysis and immunohistochemistry. Increased nitrite/nitrate levels were observed in the plasma and frontal cortex in ALF rats at coma stage of encephalopathy compared to sham-operated controls. Increased expression of HO-1 protein and mRNA was observed in the frontal cortex of ALF rats at both precoma and coma stages of encephalopathy. Significant increases in expression of endothelial and inducible NOS mRNA isoforms also occurred at precoma and coma stages of encephalopathy. Expression of the neuronal nitric oxide synthase isoform (nNOS) was not altered by ALF. Hypothermia normalized nitrite/nitrate levels in brain and significantly attenuated HO-1, eNOS and iNOS expression. These results suggest that, oxidative/nitrosative stress participates in the pathogenesis of brain edema and its complications in ALF and that the beneficial effect of hypothermia depends in part on its ability to inhibit oxidative/nitrosative stress-related mechanisms.

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