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      Urinary proteome of dogs with kidney injury during babesiosis


      BackgroundAcute kidney injury is the most frequent complication of babesiosis in dogs and may provide a natural model for identifying early and specific markers of kidney injury in this species. There are limited data on urine proteomics in dogs, and none of the effect of babesiosis on the urine proteome. This study aimed to identify urinary proteins of dogs with kidney injury during the natural course of babesiosis caused by Babesia canis, and to compare them with proteins in a control group to reveal any potential biomarkers predicting renal injury before the presence of azotemia.Urine samples were collected from 10 dogs of various breeds and sex with naturally occurring babesiosis, and 10 healthy dogs. Pooled urine samples from both groups were separated by 2D (two-dimensional) electrophoresis, followed by protein identification using MALDI-TOF (matrix-assisted laser desorption ionization time of flight) mass spectrometry.ResultsIn total, 176 proteins were identified in the urine samples from healthy dogs, and 403 proteins were identified in the urine samples from dogs with babesiosis. Of the 176 proteins, 146 were assigned exclusively to healthy dogs, and 373 of the 403 proteins were assigned exclusively to dogs with babesiosis; 30 proteins were common for both groups. Characteristic analysis of 373 proteins found in dogs with babesiosis led to the isolation of 8 proteins associated with 10 metabolic pathways involved in immune and inflammatory responses.ConclusionsIt was hypothesized that epithelial-mesenchymal transition might play an important role in the mechanisms underlying pathological changes in renal tissue during babesiosis, as indicated by a causal relationship network built by combining 5 of the 10 selected metabolic pathways, and 4 of the 8 proteins associated with these pathways; this network included cadherins, gonadotropin releasing hormone receptors, inflammatory responses mediated by chemokine and cytokine signalling pathways, integrins, interleukins, and TGF-β (transforming growth factor β) pathways. Those pathways were linked by interleukin-13, bone morphogenetic protein 7, α2(1) collagen, and tyrosine protein kinase Fer, which are potential biomarkers of damage during babesiosis in dogs, that might indicate early renal injury.

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