Risk of osteonecrosis of the jaw in cancer patients receiving denosumab: a meta-analysis of seven randomized controlled trials
AimsThe aim of this study is to gain a better understanding of the overall incidence and risk of osteonecrosis of the jaw (ONJ) in cancer patients receiving denosumab.MethodsWe performed a meta-analysis of relevant randomized controlled trials identified in Pubmed, Embase, and Cochrane databases. Abstracts presented at the conferences were also searched. Overall incidence rates, relative risk (RR), and 95 % confidence intervals (CI) were calculated employing fixed- or random-effects models depending on the heterogeneity of the included trials.ResultsA total of 8963 patients with a variety of solid tumors from 7 randomized controlled trials (RCTs) were included for the meta-analysis. The overall incidence of ONJ in cancer patients receiving denosumab was 1.7 % [95 % CI: 0.9–3.1 %]. Also, the use of denosumab was associated with significantly increased risk of ONJ in comparison with bisphosphonates (BPs)/placebo treatment (RR 1.61, 95 % CI: 1.05–2.48, P = 0.029). Subgroup analysis based on controlled therapies demonstrated an increased risk of ONJ in denosumab therapy, when compared with BPs (RR 1.48, 95 % CI: 0.96–2.29, P = 0.078) or placebo (RR 16.28, 95 % CI: 1.68–158.05, P = 0.017). Similar results were observed in prostate cancer (RR 3.358, 95 % CI: 1.573–7.166, P = 0.002) while there was a non-significantly increased risk of denosumab-related osteonecrosis of the jaw (DONJ) in non-prostate cancers (RR 1.142, 95 % CI: 0.678–1.921, P = 0.618).ConclusionsThe use of denosumab is associated with an increased risk of developing ONJ when compared with BP treatment or placebo, although the increased risk was not statistically significant between denosumab and BP treatment. Further studies are still needed to establish guidelines for the prevention and effective treatment of ONJ.Sign-in to see all concepts, it's free!