Prominent publications by Fiery Andrews Cushman

KOL Index score: 8837

Following brain lesions, previously normal patients sometimes exhibit criminal behavior. Although rare, these cases can lend unique insight into the neurobiological substrate of criminality. Here we present a systematic mapping of lesions with known temporal association to criminal behavior, identifying 17 lesion cases. The lesion sites were spatially heterogeneous, including the medial prefrontal cortex, orbitofrontal cortex, and different locations within the bilateral temporal lobes. ...

Also Ranks for: Criminal Behavior |  lesion network |  brain regions |  cases unique insight |  orbitofrontal cortex
KOL Index score: 8382

We conducted preregistered replications of 28 classic and contemporary published findings, with protocols that were peer reviewed in advance, to examine variation in effect magnitudes across samples and settings. Each protocol was administered to approximately half of 125 samples that comprised 15,305 participants from 36 countries and territories. Using the conventional criterion of statistical significance ( p < .05), we found that 15 (54%) of the replications provided evidence of a ...

Also Ranks for: Samples Settings |  original findings |  replications evidence |  statistical significance |  labs 2
KOL Index score: 7888

Is moral judgment accomplished by intuition or conscious reasoning? An answer demands a detailed account of the moral principles in question. We investigated three principles that guide moral judgments: (a) Harm caused by action is worse than harm caused by omission, (b) harm intended as the means to a goal is worse than harm foreseen as the side effect of a goal, and (c) harm involving physical contact with the victim is worse than harm involving no physical contact. Asking whether ...

Also Ranks for: Conscious Reasoning |  moral judgment |  physical contact |  psychology social |  publication adult analysis
KOL Index score: 7837

Is the basis of criminality an act that causes harm, or an act undertaken with the belief that one will cause harm? The present study takes a cognitive neuroscience approach to investigating how information about an agent's beliefs and an action's consequences contribute to moral judgment. We build on prior developmental evidence showing that these factors contribute differentially to the young child's moral judgments coupled with neurobiological evidence suggesting a role for the right ...

Also Ranks for: Moral Judgment |  neural basis |  belief harm |  negative outcome |  neurobiological evidence
KOL Index score: 7764

Moral condemnation of harmful behavior is influenced by both cognitive and affective processes. However, despite much recent research, the proximate source of affect remains unclear. One obvious contender is empathy; simulating the victim's pain could lead one to judge an action as wrong ("outcome aversion"). An alternative, less obvious source is one's own aversion to performing the action itself ("action aversion"). To dissociate these alternatives, we developed a scale that assessed ...

Also Ranks for: Moral Condemnation |  action aversion |  affective response |  victim suffering |  judgment male
KOL Index score: 7277

Recent research in moral psychology has attempted to characterize patterns of moral judgments of actions in terms of the causal and intentional properties of those actions. The present study directly compares the roles of consequence, causation, belief and desire in determining moral judgments. Judgments of the wrongness or permissibility of action were found to rely principally on the mental states of an agent, while judgments of blame and punishment are found to rely jointly on mental ...

Also Ranks for: Moral Judgment |  mental states |  blame punishment |  harmful consequences |  agent action
KOL Index score: 7273

Between the ages of 4 and 8 children increasingly make moral judgments on the basis of an actor's intent, as opposed to the outcome that the actor brings about. Does this reflect a reorganization of concepts in the moral domain, or simply the development of capacities outside the moral domain such as theory of mind and executive function? Motivated by the past evidence that adults rely partially on outcome-based judgment for judgments of deserved punishment, but not for judgments of ...

Also Ranks for: Based Moral |  outcome intent |  accidental harm |  young children |  child development
KOL Index score: 6838

In some cases people judge it morally acceptable to sacrifice one person's life in order to save several other lives, while in other similar cases they make the opposite judgment. Researchers have identified two general factors that may explain this phenomenon at the stimulus level: (1) the agent's intention (i.e. whether the harmful event is intended as a means or merely foreseen as a side-effect) and (2) whether the agent harms the victim in a manner that is relatively "direct" or ...

Also Ranks for: Personal Force |  moral judgment |  physical contact |  experiments 1a |  agent intention
KOL Index score: 6300

Judgement callsIs moral reasoning a predominantly rational process, or does emotion play its part? Tests performed by six patients with lesions in an area of the brain involved in the normal generation of emotions (the ventromedial prefrontal cortex) point to a specific and causal role for the emotions in moral judgements. These patients produced an abnormally 'utilitarian' pattern of judgements on certain types of moral dilemmas, those that we might classify as “gut wrenching”, such as ...

Also Ranks for: Moral Judgements |  prefrontal cortex |  neurological models |  increases utilitarian |  humans judgment
KOL Index score: 5905

There is a surprising degree of overlapping structure evident across the languages of the world. One factor leading to cross-linguistic similarities may be constraints on human learning abilities. Linguistic structures that are easier for infants to learn should predominate in human languages. If correct, then (a) human infants should more readily acquire structures that are consistent with the form of natural language, whereas (b) non-human primates' patterns of learning should be less ...

Also Ranks for: Human Infants |  natural language |  linguistic structures |  discrimination learning |  speech perception
KOL Index score: 5573

To what extent do moral judgments depend on conscious reasoning from explicitly understood principles? We address this question by investigating one particular moral principle, the principle of the double effect. Using web-based technology, we collected a large data set on individuals’ responses to a series of moral dilemmas, asking when harm to innocent others is permissible. Each moral dilemma presented a choice between action and inaction, both resulting in lives saved and lives lost. ...

Also Ranks for: Moral Judgments |  principle double |  conscious reasoning |  gender age |  limited range
KOL Index score: 5186

Many accounts of decision making and reinforcement learning posit the existence of two distinct systems that control choice: a fast, automatic system and a slow, deliberative system. Recent research formalizes this distinction by mapping these systems to "model-free" and "model-based" strategies in reinforcement learning. Model-free strategies are computationally cheap, but sometimes inaccurate, because action values can be accessed by inspecting a look-up table constructed through ...

Also Ranks for: Based Control |  reinforcement learning |  action values |  model free |  human participants
KOL Index score: 5134

How do people respond to others' accidental behaviors? Reward and punishment for an accident might depend on the actor's intentions, or instead on the unintended outcomes she brings about. Yet, existing paradigms in experimental economics do not include the possibility of accidental monetary allocations. We explore the balance of outcomes and intentions in a two-player economic game where monetary allocations are made with a "trembling hand": that is, intentions and outcomes are ...

Also Ranks for: Intentions Outcomes |  player 1 |  selfish outcome |  aged punishment |  economic game
KOL Index score: 4910

Ordinary people often make moral judgments that are consistent with philosophical principles and legal distinctions. For example, they judge killing as worse than letting die, and harm caused as a necessary means to a greater good as worse than harm caused as a side-effect (Cushman, Young, & Hauser, 2006). Are these patterns of judgment produced by mechanisms specific to the moral domain, or do they derive from other psychological domains? We show that the action/omission and ...

Also Ranks for: Moral Judgment |  action omission |  ordinary people |  sideeffect distinction |  social perception
KOL Index score: 4600

We examined the effects of order of presentation on the moral judgments of professional philosophers and two comparison groups. All groups showed similar-sized order effects on their judgments about hypothetical moral scenarios targeting the doctrine of the double effect, the action-omission distinction, and the principle of moral luck. Philosophers' endorsements of related general moral principles were also substantially influenced by the order in which the hypothetical scenarios had ...

Also Ranks for: Moral Judgment |  order effects |  professional philosophers |  philosophical expertise |  hypothetical scenarios

Key People For Moral Judgment

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Fiery Andrews Cushman:Expert Impact

Concepts for whichFiery Andrews Cushmanhas direct influence:Moral judgment,  Evaluative feedback,  Cognitive load,  Representational exchange,  Moral judgments,  Collective punishment,  Criminal behavior,  Personal force.

Fiery Andrews Cushman:KOL impact

Concepts related to the work of other authors for whichfor which Fiery Andrews Cushman has influence:Moral judgment,  Social cognition,  Individual differences,  Prefrontal cortex,  Experimental philosophy,  Cognitive control,  Reinforcement learning.


 

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Department of Psychology, Harvard University, Cambridge, MA, United States of America. | Department of Psychology, Harvard University, Cambridge, MA, USA | Department of Psychology, Harvard University, Cambridge, United States | Department of Psychol