Prominent publications by Robert M Chanock

KOL Index score: 20714

In studies conducted in the 1960s, children previously immunized with a formalin-inactivated respiratory syncytial virus (RSV) vaccine (FI-RSV) developed a greater incidence and severity of pulmonary disease during subsequent natural RSV infection than did controls. It was previously shown that cotton rats immunized with FI-RSV or immunoaffinity-purified fusion (F) glycoprotein developed enhanced pulmonary histopathology following intranasal challenge with RSV. In the present studies, ...

Also Ranks for: Cotton Rats |  viral antigens |  rsv challenge |  enhanced pulmonary |  animals antibodies
KOL Index score: 17334

cDNA clones representing the VP4 gene of symptomatic human rotavirus strain KU (VP7 serotype 1) or DS-1 (VP7 serotype 2) or asymptomatic human rotavirus strain 1076 (VP7 serotype 2) were constructed and inserted into a baculovirus expression vector under the control of the polyhedrin promoter. The resulting recombinants expressed the appropriate authentic VP4 rotavirus outer capsid protein. Guinea pigs immunized with these VP4 proteins developed antibodies that neutralized infectivity of ...

Also Ranks for: Human Rotaviruses |  vp4 serotype |  outer capsid |  antigenic relationships |  rotavirus vp7
KOL Index score: 16876

Three antigenic chimeric live attenuated tick-borne encephalitis virus (TBEV) vaccine candidates were compared for level of replication in murine and human neuroblastoma cells, for neurovirulence and neuroinvasiveness in mice, and for safety, immunogenicity and efficacy in rhesus monkeys. Two chimeric viruses were generated by replacing the membrane precursor and envelope protein genes of dengue type 4 virus (DEN4) with the corresponding genes of a Far Eastern TBEV, Sofjin strain, in the ...

Also Ranks for: Rhesus Monkeys |  lgt den4 |  borne encephalitis |  neuroinvasiveness mice |  virus vaccines
KOL Index score: 16013

The dengue type 4 virus (DEN4) genome contains a 384-nucleotide (nt) 3' noncoding sequence in which the last 81 nt, predicted to form a secondary structure, are thought to be essential for virus replication. Immediately upstream of the secondary structure, short RNA sequences that are conserved among mosquito-borne flaviviruses have been identified. A series of deletions that range from 30 to 262 nt were introduced into this upstream region of full-length DEN4 cDNA to create viable ...

Also Ranks for: Dengue Type |  rhesus monkeys |  rna genome |  cell culture |  deletion mutants
KOL Index score: 15875

Within the past few years, rotavirus strains were recovered from four discrete prolonged outbreaks of infection in newborn nurseries in which affected infants failed to develop significant symptoms. The virus strains recovered from each outbreak belonged to a different human rotavirus serotype and thus each of the four human rotavirus serotypes was associated with asymptomatic infection of neonates. Marked conservation of sequence was observed among the fourth genes of the nursery ...

Also Ranks for: Amino Acid |  cleavage region |  capsid protein |  viral humans infant |  rotaviruses recovered
KOL Index score: 15344

The serum antibody response of infants and children immunized with Formalin-inactivated respiratory syncytial virus (RSV) vaccine 20 years ago was determined by using an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay specific for the RSV fusion (F) and large (G) glycoproteins and a neutralization assay. Twenty-one young infants (2 to 6 months of age) developed a high titer of antibodies to the F glycoprotein but had a poor response to the G glycoprotein. Fifteen older individuals (7 to 40 months of ...

Also Ranks for: Antibody Response |  inactivated respiratory |  viral child |  neutralizing antibodies |  syncytial virus
KOL Index score: 14994

In young infants who possess maternally derived respiratory syncytial virus (RSV) antibodies, the antibody response to RSV glycoproteins is relatively poor, despite extensive replication of RSV. In the present study, it was found that cotton rat RSV hyperimmune antiserum suppressed the antibody response to the RSV glycoproteins but not the response to vaccinia virus antigens when the antiserum was passively transferred to cotton rats prior to infection with vaccinia recombinant viruses ...

Also Ranks for: Immune Response |  vaccinia virus |  respiratory syncytial |  viral antigens |  rsv fusion
KOL Index score: 14543

A cDNA clone representing the mRNA coding sequence of the fusion glycoprotein (F) gene of human respiratory syncytial virus (RSV) was constructed and inserted into the thymidine kinase gene of vaccinia virus (WR strain) under the control of a vaccinia virus promoter. The resulting recombinant vaccinia virus, vaccinia F, expressed the F1 and F2 cleavage products (48 and 20 kDa, respectively) of the F glycoprotein in cell culture. F1 and F2 were indistinguishable from their authentic RSV ...

Also Ranks for: Vaccinia Virus |  individual contributions |  respiratory syncytial |  fusion glycoprotein |  cotton rats
KOL Index score: 14307

A series of reassortants was isolated from coinfection of cell cultures with wild-type bovine rotavirus (UK strain [serotype 6]) or rhesus rotavirus (strain MMU18006 [serotype 3]) and a tissue culture-adapted human rotavirus strain, ST3 (serotype 4). Monospecific antiserum or a set of monoclonal antibodies to the major outer capsid neutralization glycoprotein, VP7, of the animal rotavirus parent was used to select for reassortants with human rotavirus serotype 4 neutralization ...

Also Ranks for: Rotavirus Reassortants |  serotype 4 |  gene substitution |  neutralization protein |  tissue culture
KOL Index score: 14171

Previously, the influenza A/Hong Kong/68-ts-1[E] virus and its recombinants (38° shutoff temperature of plaque formation) were shown to be insufficiently attenuated for persons who lacked immunity to both the hemagglutinin and neuraminidase surface glycoproteins, i.e., doubly seronegative individuals. To meet the need for immunization of such individuals, a virus more defective than the ts-1[E] recombinants was produced. The resulting virus, designated Udorn/72-ts-1A2, possessed is ...

Also Ranks for: Influenza Virus |  surface antigens |  nasal turbinates |  udorn 72 |  replication vivo
KOL Index score: 14082

Expression of dengue virus gene products involves specific proteolytic cleavages of a precursor polyprotein. To study the flanking sequences required for expression of the dengue virus nonstructural glycoprotein NS1, we constructed a series of recombinant vaccinia viruses that contain the coding sequence for NS1 in combination with various lengths of upstream and downstream sequences. The NS1 products expressed by these viruses in infected CV-1 cells were immune precipitated and analyzed ...

Also Ranks for: Virus Nonstructural |  ns1 ns2a |  signal sequence |  proper processing |  glycosylation humans
KOL Index score: 13906

Respiratory syncytial virus (RSV) is the most common cause of viral bronchiolitis and pneumonia in children. The present study compares the level of attenuation, genetic stability and efficacy of three conditional-lethal temperature-sensitive (ts) mutants of the RSV A2 wild-type virus, designated ts-1, ts-1-NG1, and ts-4, in seronegative chimpanzees and also compares their efficacy with that of vaccinia virus recombinants that express the surface glycoproteins of RSV. Each of the ts ...

Also Ranks for: Attenuated Respiratory |  vaccinia virus |  rsv mutants |  viral vaccines |  surface glycoproteins
KOL Index score: 13876

An avian influenza A virus, A/Mallard/NY/6750/78(H2N2), was restricted in in replication in the respiratory tract of squirrel monkeys. Avian-human influenza A reassortant viruses possessing the six RNA segments coding for nonsurface proteins (i.e., internal genes) of this avian virus were as restricted in replication in squirrel monkeys as their avian influenza parent. These findings indicated that restriction of replication of the avian influenza virus is a function of one or more of ...

Also Ranks for: Respiratory Tract |  avian influenza |  virus replication |  internal genes |  squirrel monkeys
KOL Index score: 13871

Ten serologically distinct avian influenza A viruses were administered to squirrel monkeys and hamsters to compare their replication and virulence with those of human influenza A virus, A/Udorn/307/72 (H3N2). In squirrel monkeys, the 10 avian influenza A viruses exhibited a spectrum of replication and virulence. The levels of virus replication and clinical response were closely correlated. Two viruses, A/Mallard/NY/6874/78 (H3N2) and A/Pintail/Alb/121/79 (H7N8), resembled the human virus ...

Also Ranks for: Avian Influenza |  squirrel monkeys |  virus replication |  udorn 307 72 |  viral plaque
KOL Index score: 13747

A formalin-inactivated respiratory syncytial virus (RSV) vaccine tested 22 years ago failed to protect infant vaccinees against RSV infection or disease. Instead, lower respiratory tract disease was enhanced during subsequent infection by RSV. Enhancement of pulmonary pathology is also observed when cotton rats are immunized with formalin-inactivated RSV and subsequently infected with this virus. A major question that must be addressed for each new paramyxovirus vaccine is whether the ...

Also Ranks for: Cotton Rats |  rsv challenge |  viral antigens |  cytotoxic vaccines |  pulmonary pathology

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Robert M Chanock:Expert Impact

Concepts for whichRobert M Chanockhas direct influence:Respiratory syncytial virus,  Influenza virus,  Respiratory syncytial,  Syncytial virus,  Mycoplasma pneumoniae,  Eaton agent,  Cotton rats,  Human rotavirus.

Robert M Chanock:KOL impact

Concepts related to the work of other authors for whichfor which Robert M Chanock has influence:Respiratory syncytial,  Influenza virus,  Monoclonal antibodies,  Mycoplasma pneumoniae,  Rsv infection,  Young children,  Cotton rats.



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Laboratory of Infectious Diseases, National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases, National Institutes of Health, Bethesda, Maryland | From the *University of Tampere Medical School, Tampere, Finland; †Wyeth Vaccines Research, Henriett