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  • Reverse Transcriptase
  • Christos J Petropoulos

    Prominent publications by Christos J Petropoulos

    KOL Index score: 16446

    Human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) reverse transcriptase (RT) resistance mutations K65R and M184V result in changes in susceptibility to several nucleoside and nucleotide RT inhibitors. K65R-containing viruses showed decreases in susceptibility to tenofovir, didanosine (ddI), abacavir, and (-)-beta-D-dioxolane guanosine (DXG; the active metabolite of amdoxovir) but appeared to be fully susceptible to zidovudine and stavudine in vitro. Viruses containing the K65R and M184V ...

    Also Ranks for: Transcriptase Mutations |  replication capacity |  k65r mutation |  molecular mechanisms |  enzyme function
    KOL Index score: 15200

    BACKGROUND: In many patients with human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection, therapy with potent antiretroviral drugs does not result in complete suppression of HIV replication. The effect of cessation of therapy in these patients is unknown.

    METHODS: Sixteen patients who had a plasma HIV RNA level of more than 2500 copies per milliliter during combination antiretroviral-drug therapy were randomly assigned, in a 2:1 ratio, to discontinue or continue therapy. Plasma HIV RNA levels, CD4 ...

    Also Ranks for: Drug Therapy |  detectable viremia |  immunologic consequences |  cd4 cell |  hiv rna
    KOL Index score: 14881

    BACKGROUND: Central nervous system (CNS) exposure to HIV is a universal facet of systemic infection. Because of its proximity to and shared barriers with the brain, cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) provides a useful window into and model of human CNS HIV infection.

    METHODS: Prospective study of the relationships of CSF to plasma HIV RNA, and the effects of: 1) progression of systemic infection, 2) CSF white blood cell (WBC) count, 3) antiretroviral therapy (ART), and 4) neurological ...

    Also Ranks for: Hiv Infection |  csf plasma |  antiretroviral treatment |  cerebrospinal fluid |  rna viral
    KOL Index score: 14080

    The selection of patients with HER2-positive breast cancer for treatment with trastuzumab is based on the measurement of HER2 protein expression by immunohistochemistry, or the presence of HER2 gene amplification by fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH). By using multivariate analyses, we investigate the relationship between quantitative measurements of HER2 expression or HER2:HER2 dimers and objective response (Response Evaluation Criteria in Solid Tumors), time to progression, and ...

    Also Ranks for: Her2 Expression |  trastuzumab treatment |  metastatic breast cancer |  differential survival |  monoclonal antibodies
    KOL Index score: 13109

    Broadly neutralizing monoclonal antibodies (MAbs) are potentially important tools in human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) vaccine design. A few rare MAbs have been intensively studied, but we still have a limited appreciation of their neutralization breadth. Using a pseudovirus assay, we evaluated MAbs from clade B-infected donors and a clade B HIV(+) plasma against 93 viruses from diverse backgrounds. Anti-gp120 MAbs exhibited greater activity against clade B than non-B viruses, ...

    Also Ranks for: Monoclonal Antibodies |  clade neutralization |  type 1 |  cd4 binding site |  immunodeficiency virus
    KOL Index score: 13064

    CONTEXT: Loss of viral suppression in patients infected with human immunodeficiency virus (HIV), who are receiving potent antiretroviral therapy, has been attributed to outgrowth of drug-resistant virus; however, resistance patterns are not well characterized in patients whose protease inhibitor combination therapy fails afterachieving viral suppression.

    OBJECTIVE: To characterize drug susceptibility of virus from HIV-infected patients who are failing to sustain suppression while taking ...

    Also Ranks for: Drug Susceptibility |  viral rebound |  hiv infection |  reverse transcriptase |  indinavir resistance
    KOL Index score: 12274

    Acute human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection is associated with the rapid development of neutralization escape mutations. The degree to which viral evolution persists in chronic infection has not been well characterized, nor is it clear if all patients develop high-level neutralization antibody escape. We therefore measured neutralizing antibody responses against autologous and heterologous viruses in a cohort of acutely and chronically infected subjects (n = 65). Neutralizing ...

    Also Ranks for: Neutralizing Antibody |  heterologous viruses |  chronic infection |  autologous virus |  hiv antibodies
    KOL Index score: 12246

    Many studies have demonstrated that the third variable region (V3) of the human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) envelope protein (Env) is a major determinant of coreceptor tropism. Other regions in the surface gp120 subunit of Env can modulate coreceptor tropism in a manner that is not fully understood. In this study, we evaluated the effect of env determinants outside of V3 on coreceptor usage through the analysis of (i) patient-derived env clones that differ in coreceptor ...

    Also Ranks for: Coreceptor Tropism |  envelope protein |  amino acid |  v3 sequences |  human immunodeficiency virus
    KOL Index score: 12045

    Two amino acids inserted between residues 69 and 70 of human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) reverse transcriptase (RT) are rare mutations that may develop in viruses containing multiple thymidine analog (zidovudine [AZT], stavudine)-associated mutations and that confer high-level resistance to all currently approved chain-terminating nucleoside and nucleotide RT inhibitors (NRTIs). The two known mechanisms of resistance to NRTIs are decreased incorporation and increased excision. ...

    Also Ranks for: Reverse Transcriptase |  tenofovir resistance |  molecular mechanisms |  virus type |  insertion mutation
    KOL Index score: 11815

    In human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) subtype B, CXCR4 coreceptor use ranges from approximately 20% in early infection to approximately 50% in advanced disease. Coreceptor use by non-subtype B HIV is less well characterized. We studied coreceptor tropism of subtype A and D HIV-1 collected from 68 pregnant, antiretroviral drug-naive Ugandan women (HIVNET 012 trial). None of 33 subtype A or 10 A/D-recombinant viruses used the CXCR4 coreceptor. In contrast, nine (36%) of 25 subtype ...

    Also Ranks for: Coreceptor Tropism |  ccr5 receptors |  immunodeficiency virus |  type 1 |  dual tropic
    KOL Index score: 11723

    CONTEXT: Transmission of multiclass drug-resistant human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) may increase with wider use of antiretroviral therapy.

    OBJECTIVE: To determine trends in prevalence of HIV-1 drug resistance among recently infected individuals in a geographic area with a high penetration of antiviral treatment.

    DESIGN, SETTING, AND PATIENTS: Consecutive case series of 225 patients referred to a San Francisco, Calif, hospital with recent HIV-1 infection from June 1996 through ...

    Also Ranks for: Infected Persons |  genotypic resistance |  time trends |  hiv1 drug |  antiretroviral therapy
    KOL Index score: 11637

    Anti-human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) antibodies whose binding to gp120 is enhanced by CD4 binding (CD4i antibodies) are generally considered nonneutralizing for primary HIV-1 isolates. However, a novel CD4i-specific Fab fragment, X5, has recently been found to neutralize a wide range of primary isolates. To investigate the precise nature of the extraordinary neutralizing ability of Fab X5, we evaluated the abilities of different forms (immunoglobulin G [IgG], Fab, and ...

    Also Ranks for: Glycoprotein Gp120 |  primary isolates |  human immunodeficiency |  virus type |  ccr5 receptors
    KOL Index score: 11310

    The human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) integrase mutations N155H and Q148R(H)(K) that reduce susceptibility to the integrase inhibitor raltegravir have been identified in patients failing treatment regimens containing raltegravir. Whether these resistance mutations occur individually or in combination within a single virus genome has not been defined, nor do we fully understand the impact of these primary mutations and other secondary mutations on raltegravir susceptibility and ...

    Also Ranks for: Replication Capacity |  raltegravir resistance mutations |  immunodeficiency virus |  type 1 |  genetic pathways
    KOL Index score: 11155

    Hepatitis C virus (HCV) infects over 170 million people worldwide and is the leading cause of chronic liver diseases, including cirrhosis, liver failure, and liver cancer. Available antiviral therapies cause severe side effects and are effective only for a subset of patients, though treatment outcomes have recently been improved by the combination therapy now including boceprevir and telaprevir, which inhibit the viral NS3/4A protease. Despite extensive efforts to develop more potent ...

    Also Ranks for: Molecular Basis |  protease inhibitors |  resistance drug |  hepatitis virus |  r155k d168a
    KOL Index score: 11038

    CONTEXT: The transmission of drug-resistant human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) has been documented, but the prevalence of such transmission is unknown.

    OBJECTIVE: To assess the spectrum and frequency of antiretroviral susceptibility among subjects with primary HIV infection.

    DESIGN, SETTING, AND PATIENTS: Retrospective analysis of 141 subjects identified from clinical research centers in 5 major metropolitan areas, enrolled from 1989 to 1998, with HIV seroconversion within the preceding ...

    Also Ranks for: Drug Susceptibility |  reverse transcriptase |  primary hiv |  patients resistance |  protease inhibitors


    Christos J Petropoulos: Influence Statistics

    Sample of concepts for which Christos J Petropoulos is among the top experts in the world.
    Concept World rank
    combination viruses #1
    wild type k103n #1
    consequences duplications #1
    threeclass resistance #1
    multidrugresistant hiv1 hiv1 #1
    discordant tropism csf #1
    trofile mt2 #1
    proteins homodimers #1
    her2 dimers #1
    chopit2 #1
    situ hybridization hermark #1
    threshold hiv1 #1
    e36 galv #1
    amulv e36 #1
    exceptional potency profiles #1
    veratag her2 measurements #1
    cellbased infectivity assays #1
    mcp1p3 #1
    ibalizumab treatment #1
    dualtropic variants #1
    quantitative p95her2 #1
    t369i n348i #1
    antibody epitope networks #1
    r5 tropism csf #1
    csf viral receptors #1
    removal mulv #1
    continued drug pressure #1
    christos petropoulos #1
    g140s case #1
    homodimers ffpe tissues #1
    lopinavir cross #1
    chimeras eldkwabased peptides #1
    n88s mutation amprenavir #1
    drug resistance ic95 #1
    primary protease mutation #1
    3gag #1
    envelope sequences nodes #1
    replication capacity viruses #1
    gt ptr gts #1
    shivsf162p4 infected macaques #1
    varied moieties #1
    protease n88s #1
    t369i #1
    inhibitor multidrugresistant hiv1 #1
    nnrti nnrti susceptibility #1
    3position potency #1
    her1 her2 protein #1
    time cxcr4 usage #1
    p1p6 p6 #1

    Key People For Reverse Transcriptase

    Top KOLs in the world
    Stephen H Hughes
    reverse transcriptase nonnucleoside inhibitors leukemia virus
    Douglas D Richman†
    antiretroviral therapy hiv infection human immunodeficiency virus
    De Clercq De Clercq
    antiviral activity reverse transcriptase human immunodeficiency virus
    Edward V Arnold
    reverse transcriptase human rhinovirus nonnucleoside inhibitors
    Brendan A Larder
    reverse transcriptase human immunodeficiency virus antiretroviral therapy
    Mark A Wainberg
    reverse transcriptase immunodeficiency virus resistance mutations

    Christos J Petropoulos:Expert Impact

    Concepts for whichChristos J Petropouloshas direct influence:Reverse transcriptase,  Her2 expression,  Drug susceptibility,  Human immunodeficiency virus,  Immunodeficiency virus,  Human immunodeficiency,  Replication capacity,  Coreceptor tropism.

    Christos J Petropoulos:KOL impact

    Concepts related to the work of other authors for whichfor which Christos J Petropoulos has influence:Antiretroviral therapy,  Hiv infection,  Reverse transcriptase,  Neutralizing antibodies,  Human immunodeficiency virus,  Viral load,  Resistance mutations.



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    From the Division of HIV, Infectious Diseases, and Global Medicine (M.J.P., H.M.S., C.A.F., R.H., V.T., S.G.D.), and Department of Neurology (A.N.N.), University of California, San Francisco; Icahn School of Medicine at Mount Sinai (H.H.), New York;