Jean‐Michel Gracies

Jean‐Michel Gracies

UR 7377 BIOTN, Laboratoire Analyse et Restauration du Mouvement, Université Paris Est Créteil (UPEC), Créteil, France | Bioingénierie, Tissus et Neuroplasticité (BIOTN), ...

KOL Resume for Jean‐Michel Gracies  (spastic paraplegia, paraplegia, hereditary spastic paraplegia, spastic, spastic paraplegia, hereditary, ataxia spastic paraplegia, ataxia)


UR 7377 BIOTN, Laboratoire Analyse et Restauration du Mouvement, Université Paris Est Créteil (UPEC), Créteil, France


UR 7377 BIOTN, Laboratoire Analyze et Restauration du Mouvement, Université Paris Est Créteil (UPEC), France

Laboratoire analyse et restauration du Mouvement (ARM, Hôpitaux Universitaires Henri Mondor, Assistance Publique-Hôpitaux de Paris (AP-HP).


EA 7377 BIOTN, Service de Rééducation Neurolocomotrice, Université Paris-Est Créteil, Hospital Albert Chenevier-Henri Mondor, Créteil, France


Department of Neurolocomotion Therapy, Groupe Hospitalier Henri Mondor, Assistance Publique des Hôpitaux de Paris (AP-HP), Créteil, France


EA 7377 BIOTN, Université Paris Est Créteil (UPEC), Créteil, France.

Groupe Hospitalier Henri-Mondor, 51, avenue de Maréchal-de-Lattre-de-Tassigny, Créteil, France


EA 7377 BIOTN, Université Paris‐Est Créteil, Service de Rééducation Neurolocomotrice, Hôpitaux Universitaires Henri Mondor, 51, avenue du Maréchal De Lattre De Tassigny, 94010, Créteil, France

Author affiliations are provided at the end of the article.


Robert and John M. Bendheim Parkinson and Movement Disorders Center, Department of Neurology, Mount Sinai School of Medicine, New York, United States of America

Groupe hospitalier universitaire Henri-Mondor, service de rééducation neurolocomotrice, Créteil, France


Laboratoire analyse et restauration du mouvement, service de rééducation neurolocomotrice, hôpitaux universitaires Henri-Mondor, 51, avenue du Maréchal-De-Lattre-De-Tassigny, 94010 Créteil, France.

Lab. ARM, Paris-Est Univ., Creteil, France


Laboratoire analyse et restauration du mouvement, rééducation neurolocomotrice, université Paris-Est Créteil, Créteil (94), hôpitaux universitaires Henri-Mondor, AP-HP, 51, avenue du Maréchal-de-Lattre-de-Tassigny, 94010 Créteil, France.

Service de Rééducation Neurolocomotrice, Hôpitaux Universitaires Henri-Mondor, AP–HP, Université Paris-Est Créteil, France

Department of Neurology, Mount Sinai Medical Center, New York, NY

Foundation Chair of Physiotherapy, Honorary Professor, Faculty of Health Sciences, The University of Sydney, Sydney, NSW, Australia


Service de médecine physique et de réadaptation, unité de neurorééducation, groupe hospitalier Henri-Mondor, AP–HP, 50, avenue du Maréchal-de-Lattre-de-Tassigny, Créteil, France


Laboratoire analyse et restauration du mouvement, service de médecine physique et de réadaptation, unité de neurorééducation, AP–HP, groupe hospitalier Henri-Mondor, Créteil, France


Arts et Métiers ParisTech, Laboratoire de Biomécanique (LBM), Paris, France

Department of Neurology, Mount Sinai School of Medicine, 10029, New York, NY, USA


Department of Physical Medicine and Rehabilitation, CHU Henri Mondor, Créteil, France


CHU Henri Mondor, Créteil France


CHU Henri Mondor, Créteil, France

The Mount Sinai School of Medicine, New York, New York, USA

Department of Neurology, Mount Sinai School of Medicine, New York, NY


Mount Sinai School of Medicine, United States

Service de Médecine Physique et de Réadaptation, C.H.U. Henri MONDOR, Créteil, France.


Prominent publications by Jean‐Michel Gracies

KOL Index score: 15995

BACKGROUND: Resistance from antagonistic muscle groups might be a crucial factor reducing function in chronic hemiparesis. The resistance due to spastic co-contraction might be reduced by botulinum toxin injections. We assessed the effects of abobotulinumtoxinA injection in the upper limb muscles on muscle tone, spasticity, active movement, and function.

METHODS: In this randomised, placebo-controlled, double-blind study, we enrolled adults (aged 18-80 years) at least 6 months after ...

Known for Limb Spasticity |  Placebo Abobotulinumtoxina 500 |  Baseline Week |  Traumatic Brain Injury |  Muscle Tone
KOL Index score: 10708

OBJECTIVE: To demonstrate single abobotulinumtoxinA injection efficacy in lower limb vs placebo for adults with chronic hemiparesis and assess long-term safety and efficacy of repeated injections.

METHODS: In a multicenter, double-blind, randomized, placebo-controlled, single-cycle study followed by a 1-year open-label, multiple-cycle extension, adults ≥6 months after stroke/brain injury received one lower limb injection (abobotulinumtoxinA 1,000 U, abobotulinumtoxinA 1,500 U, placebo) ...

Known for Lower Limb |  Botulinum Toxins |  1500 Placebo |  Walking Speed |  Efficacy Safety
KOL Index score: 10608

1. The possibility was investigated that the facilitation of the transmission in the propriospinal-like system during voluntary contraction, documented in the companion paper (Burke, Gracies, Mazevet, Meunier & Pierrot-Deseilligny, 1992), is due to a decrease in presynaptic inhibition of afferents projecting to propriospinal-like neurones. 2. The radial nerve was stimulated to evoke presynaptic inhibition of the monosynaptic Ia projections to forearm flexor motoneurones (Berardelli, Day, ...

Known for Presynaptic Inhibition |  Voluntary Contraction |  Radial Nerve |  Propriospinallike Neurones |  Facilitation Transmission
KOL Index score: 10321

Spasticity is a velocity-dependent increase in stretch reflex activity. It is one of the forms of muscle overactivity that may affect patients with damage to the central nervous system. Spasticity monitoring is relevant to function because the degree of spasticity may reflect the intensity of other disabling types of muscle overactivity, such as unwanted antagonistic co-contractions, permanent muscle activity in the absence of any stretch or volitional command (spastic dystonia), or ...

Known for Muscle Overactivity |  Local Treatments |  Botulinum Toxin |  Neurolytic Agents |  Central Nervous
KOL Index score: 9922

OBJECTIVE: To measure the Tardieu Scale's reliability in children with cerebral palsy (CP) when used by raters with and without experience in using the scale, before and after training.

DESIGN: Single-center, intrarater and interrater reliability study.

SETTING: Institutional ambulatory care.

PARTICIPANTS: Referred children with CP in the pretraining phase (n=5), during training (n=3), and in the posttraining phase (n=15).

INTERVENTIONS: The Tardieu Scale involves performing passive ...

Known for Tardieu Scale |  Cerebral Palsy |  Interrater Reliability |  Articular Reflex |  Muscle Spasticity
KOL Index score: 9616

OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the reliability of the Ashworth Scale and the Disability Assessment Scale (DAS) in poststroke patients with upper-limb spasticity and functional disability.

DESIGN: Single-center trial.

SETTING: University medical center.

PARTICIPANTS: Nine patients > or = 6 months poststroke with upper-limb spasticity and impairment in the areas of hygiene, dressing, limb posture, or pain were included in the analysis.

INTERVENTIONS: Ten experienced medical professionals rated ...

Known for Ashworth Scale |  Poststroke Spasticity |  Intrarater Reliability |  Functional Disability |  Upper Limb
KOL Index score: 9592

BACKGROUND: Botulinum toxin (BTX) injection into rectus femoris (RF) is a therapeutic modality used to improve knee flexion during the swing phase of gait in hemiparesis. The impact of this treatment on lower limb coordination is unknown. The authors evaluated whether BTX injection into RF is associated with modifications of intersegmental coordination in hemiparesis.

METHODS: The authors evaluated gait in 10 control and 14 hemiparetic subjects with low peak knee flexion associated with ...

Known for Rectus Femoris |  Hemiparetic Subjects |  Botulinum Toxin |  Limb Coordination |  Gait Cycle
KOL Index score: 9399

OBJECTIVE: To assess acceptability, effects on swelling, resting posture, spasticity, and active (AROM) and passive range of motion (PROM) of individually tailored upper limb Lycra garments, designed as dynamic splints to exert directional pull on certain limb segments, when worn for 3 hours by hemiplegic patients.

DESIGN: Crossover trial.

SETTING: Outpatient and inpatient rehabilitation center.

PATIENTS: Convenience sample of 16 patients with hemiparesis and upper limb spasticity caused ...

Known for Upper Limb |  Patients Hemiplegia |  Lycra Splints |  Motion Prom |  Elbow Wrist
KOL Index score: 9362

BACKGROUND: While spasticity is commonly treated with oral agents or botulinum neurotoxin (BoNT) injection, these treatments have not been systematically compared.

METHODS: This study performed a randomised, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial to compare injection of BoNT-Type A into spastic upper limb muscles versus oral tizanidine (TZD), or placebo, in 60 subjects with upper-limb spasticity due to stroke or traumatic brain injury (TBI). Wrist flexors were systematically injected, ...

Known for Botulinum Neurotoxin |  Upper Limb |  Wrist Flexors |  Muscle Spasticity |  Oral Tizanidine
KOL Index score: 9166

1. The patterns of excitation and convergence by peripheral afferents on propriospinal-like neurones projecting to forearm flexor carpi radialis (FCR) motoneurones in human subjects were determined at rest and during various voluntary contractions, using H reflex testing. 2. At rest, the FCR H reflex could be facilitated by mixed nerve (ulnar, musculocutaneous) and cutaneous (afferents from both sides of the hand) inputs. The characteristics of this facilitation (low threshold, long ...

Known for Propriospinallike Neurones |  Ulnar Nerve |  Voluntary Contractions |  Muscle Contraction |  Human Subjects
KOL Index score: 8912

Systemic pharmacologic treatments may be indicated in conditions in which the distribution of muscle overactivity is diffuse. Antispastic drugs act in the CNS either by suppression of excitation (glutamate) enhancement of inhibition (GABA, glycine), or a combination of the two. Only four drugs are currently approved by the US FDA as antispactic agents: baclofen, diazepam, dantrolene sodium, and tizanidine. However, there are a number of other drugs available with proven antispastic ...

Known for Antispastic Drugs |  Muscle Overactivity |  Regional Treatments |  Dantrolene Sodium |  Intrathecal Administration
KOL Index score: 8710

1. The pattern of distribution of non-monosynaptic (propriospinal-like) excitation to various motor nuclei (deltoid, extensors and flexors of the elbow, the wrist and the fingers) was investigated. 2. Changes in the firing probability of individual voluntarily activated motor units were studied following conditioning stimuli. Conditioning volleys were evoked by weak electrical stimuli applied to various mixed nerves (circumflex, musculocutaneous, median, radial, ulnar) and to the skin. ...

Known for Pattern Excitation |  Firing Probability |  Motor Nucleus |  Conditioning Stimuli |  Mixed Nerves
KOL Index score: 8388

This position paper introduces an assessment method using staged calculation of coefficients of impairment in spastic paresis, with its rationale and proposed use. The syndrome of deforming spastic paresis superimposes two disorders around each joint: a neural disorder comprising stretch-sensitive paresis in agonists and antagonist muscle overactivity, and a muscle disorder ("spastic myopathy") combining shortening and loss of extensibility in antagonists. Antagonist muscle overactivity ...

Known for Spastic Paresis |  Coefficients Shortening |  Lower Limb |  Active Range |  Upper Extremity
KOL Index score: 8349

In the subacute and chronic stages of spastic paresis, stretch-sensitive (spastic) muscle overactivity emerges as a third fundamental mechanism of motor impairment, along with paresis and soft tissue contracture. Part II of this review primarily addresses the pathophysiology of the various forms of spastic overactivity. It is argued that muscle contracture is one of the factors that cause excessive responsiveness to stretch, which in turn aggravates contracture. Excessive responsiveness ...

Known for Spastic Paresis |  Muscle Overactivity |  Articular Reflex |  Motor Impairment |  Range Motion
KOL Index score: 8340

1. The possibility that stimulation of the motor cortex facilitates transmission in the pathway mediating non-monosynaptic ('propriospinal') excitation from low-threshold afferents to upper limb motoneurones was investigated. 2. Convergence between peripheral afferent volleys (from the ulnar or musculo-cutaneous nerve) and corticospinal volleys (evoked by magnetic stimulation of the motor cortex) was investigated using the spatial facilitation technique. Thus the effects of these volleys ...

Known for Corticospinal Excitation |  Propriospinal Neurones |  Motor Cortex |  Cortical Stimulation |  Reflex Facilitation


Jean‐Michel Gracies: Influence Statistics

Sample of concepts for which Jean‐Michel Gracies is among the top experts in the world.
Concept World rank
sousutilisation #1
planar targetdirected movements #1
cycle cxa #1
lowpass 30hz filters #1
paresis cxa #1
wafes 10 #1
ambulation test #1
subacute robot #1
treatment dose description #1
estimates cocontraction #1
graded dorsiflexion efforts #1
state aafowearer #1
procruste #1
paresis pathophysiology #1
covid19 infection rehabilitation #1
estimates soleus #1
n78 p0·0001 placebo #1
parameters tardieu scale #1
wider rehabilitation goals #1
factors ambulation levels #1
feet position age #1
agonist recruitment #1
258 safety population #1
sensitive paresis #1
wafes 45 #1
finger wrist flexors #1
antagonist stretch #1
cell therapies plasticity #1
gastrocnemius stretch #1
comfortable ambulation speed #1
ambulation speed #1
contraction hemiparetic subjects #1
secondary tertiary markers #1
raters intrarater #1
barefoot free #1
target distance inverse #1
xv1 gastrocnemius #1
barthel activities icu #1
stretch splints casts #1
chemical surgical treatments #1
contraction gastrocnemius medialis #1
dorsiflexion plantarflexion movements #1
placebo n81 #1
proposer quantité #1
wrist flexors pronators #1
asymmetric motor training #1

Key People For Spastic Paresis

Top KOLs in the world
Jean‐Michel Gracies
spastic paresis lower limb botulinum toxin
David J Burke
motor axons cutaneous afferents axonal excitability
David M Simpson
hiv infection neuropathic pain human immunodeficiency virus
Alberto Esquenazi
polio survivors muscle overactivity lower limb
Allison Brashear
cervical dystonia botulinum toxin upper limb
William Zev Rymer
stroke survivors motor unit spinal cord

Jean‐Michel Gracies:Expert Impact

Concepts for whichJean‐Michel Gracieshas direct influence:Spastic paresis,  Lower limb,  Muscle overactivity,  Upper limb,  Active function,  Chronic hemiparesis,  Botulinum toxin,  Step length.

Jean‐Michel Gracies:KOL impact

Concepts related to the work of other authors for whichfor which Jean‐Michel Gracies has influence:Botulinum toxin,  Cerebral palsy,  Upper limb,  Parkinson disease,  Stroke patients,  Muscle spasticity,  Movement disorders.



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UR 7377 BIOTN, Laboratoire Analyse et Restauration du Mouvement, Université Paris Est Créteil (UPEC), Créteil, France | Bioingénierie, Tissus et Neuroplasticité (BIOTN), Université Paris-Est Créteil, 94000 Créteil, France | AP-HP, Service de Rééducat

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