• Disease
  • Teratocarcinoma
  • Teratocarcinoma Stem
  • Teratocarcinoma Stem Cells
  • Gail R Martin

    Prominent publications by Gail R Martin

    KOL Index score: 15790

    GDNF signaling through the Ret receptor tyrosine kinase (RTK) is required for ureteric bud (UB) branching morphogenesis during kidney development in mice and humans. Furthermore, many other mutant genes that cause renal agenesis exert their effects via the GDNF/RET pathway. Therefore, RET signaling is believed to play a central role in renal organogenesis. Here, we re-examine the extent to which the functions of Gdnf and Ret are unique, by seeking conditions in which a kidney can develop ...

    Also Ranks for: Kidney Development |  gdnf ret |  renal agenesis |  etv4 etv5 |  proteins mice
    KOL Index score: 15035

    At E4.0 the inner cell mass of the mouse blastocyst consists of a core of embryonic ectoderm cells surrounded by an outer layer of primitive (extraembryonic) endoderm, which subsequently gives rise to both visceral endoderm and parietal endoderm. Shortly after blastocyst implantation, the solid mass of ectoderm cells is converted by a process known as cavitation into a pseudostratified columnar epithelium surrounding a central cavity. We have previously used two cell lines, which form ...

    Also Ranks for: Visceral Endoderm |  bmp signaling |  embryoid bodies |  mouse embryo |  ectoderm cells
    KOL Index score: 13704

    The site-specific DNA recombinase Cre is being used to develop a new generation of tools for controlling gene expression in mice [1]. Cre mediates the recombination of two directly repeated target (loxP) sites to a single loxP site, with concomitant excision of the DNA segment flanked by the loxP sites (the 'floxed' DNA). Such recombination can function to activate a gene by excising a floxed DNA segment that blocks expression because it either separates the regulatory and coding ...

    Also Ranks for: Target Gene |  transgenic mouse |  female germ |  loxp sites |  mice cre
    KOL Index score: 12804

    In chick embryos homozygous for the limbless mutation, limb bud outgrowth is initiated, but a morphologically distinct apical ridge does not develop and limbs do not form. Here we report the results of an analysis of gene expression in limbless mutant limb buds. Fgf4, Fgf8, Bmp2 and Msx2, genes that are expressed in the apical ridge of normal limb buds, are not expressed in the mutant limb bud ectoderm, providing molecular support for the hypothesis that limb development fails in the ...

    Also Ranks for: Apical Ridge |  limb bud |  expression genes |  shh induction |  bone morphogenetic
    KOL Index score: 12773

    A major function of the limb bud apical ectodermal ridge (AER) is to produce fibroblast growth factors (FGFs) that signal to the underlying mesenchyme. Previous studies have suggested that of the four FGF genes specifically expressed in the mouse AER, Fgf8 is unique not only in its expression pattern, but also because it is the only such FGF gene that causes limb skeletal abnormalities when individually inactivated. However, when both Fgf8 and Fgf4 are simultaneously inactivated in the ...

    Also Ranks for: Fgf4 Expression |  limb bud |  aer fgf8 |  fibroblast growth |  underlying mesenchyme
    KOL Index score: 12674

    Vertebrate limb development depends on signals from the apical ectodermal ridge (AER), which rims the distal tip of the limb bud1. Removal of the AER in chick results in limbs lacking distal skeletal elements2,3. Fibroblast growth factor (FGF) proteins can substitute for the AER (refs 4–7), suggesting that FGF signalling mediates AER activity. Of the four mouse Fgf genes (Fgf4 , Fgf8, Fgf9, Fgf17) known to display AER-specific expression domains within the limb bud (AER-Fgfs), only Fgf8 ...

    Also Ranks for: Fgf8 Aer |  normal limb development |  mutant strains mice |  factor fgf |  fibroblast growth
    KOL Index score: 12543

    Regions of the mouse and human genomes with strong homology to the Drosophila engrailed gene have been identified by Southern blot analysis. One mouse engrailed-like region, Mo-en.1, has been cloned and partially sequenced; homology with the engrailed gene is localized to a 180 bp engrailed-like homeo box and 63 nucleotides immediately 3' to it. The protein sequence this region can encode includes 81 amino acids, of which 60 (75%) are identical with those of the putative translation ...

    Also Ranks for: Engrailed Gene |  sequence homology |  mammalian embryo |  gestational age humans |  nucleic acid
    KOL Index score: 12469

    Analysis of mouse embryos homozygous for a loss-of-function allele of Gbx2 demonstrates that this homeobox gene is required for normal development of the mid/hindbrain region. Gbx2 function appears to be necessary at the neural plate stage for the correct specification and normal proliferation or survival of anterior hindbrain precursors. It is also required to maintain normal patterns of expression at the mid/hindbrain boundary of Fgf8 and Wnt1, genes that encode signaling molecules ...

    Also Ranks for: Anterior Hindbrain |  gbx2 gene |  messenger rhombencephalon |  growth factors |  posterior midbrain
    KOL Index score: 11729

    Development of the vertebrate limb bud depends on reciprocal interactions between the zone of polarizing activity (ZPA) and the apical ectodermal ridge1 (AER). Sonic hedgehog (SHH) and fibroblast growth factors (FGFs) are key signalling molecules produced in the ZPA and AER, respectively1,2. Experiments in chicks suggested that SHH expression in the ZPA is maintained by FGF4 expression in the AER, and vice versa3,4, providing a molecular mechanism for coordinating the activities of these ...

    Also Ranks for: Shh Expression |  knockout mice |  conditional inactivation |  zpa aer |  developmental genes
    KOL Index score: 11438

    Beads containing recombinant FGF8 (FGF8-beads) were implanted in the prospective caudal diencephalon or midbrain of chick embryos at stages 9-12. This induced the neuroepithelium rostral and caudal to the FGF8-bead to form two ectopic, mirror-image midbrains. Furthermore, cells in direct contact with the bead formed an outgrowth that protruded laterally from the neural tube. Tissue within such lateral outgrowths developed proximally into isthmic nuclei and distally into a cerebellum-like ...

    Also Ranks for: Otx2 Expression |  isthmic organizer |  ectopic fgf8 |  neural tube |  proteins wnt1
    KOL Index score: 11025

    Using RNA in situ hybridization analysis, we have characterized the expression domains of the four known members of the FGF receptor-tyrosine kinase gene family in the murine hair follicle at various stages of the hair growth cycle. During anagen, we detected Fgfr1 RNA in the dermal papilla, Fgfr2 RNA in hair matrix cells near the dermal papilla, Fgfr3 RNA in pre-cuticle cells in the periphery of the hair bulb, and Fgfr4 RNA in cells in the periphery of the hair bulb and also in the ...

    Also Ranks for: Hair Growth Cycle |  fibroblast growth |  dermal papilla |  factor signal |  outer root sheath
    KOL Index score: 10845

    Specific genes are assumed to regulate pattern formation in the mammalian embryo, but as yet none has been identified unequivocally. It is possible that such genes in mammals may be identified by virtue of a conserved coding sequence, because many of the Drosophila melanogaster homoeotic and segmentation genes, which have crucial roles in the regulation of segmental pattern formation during embryonic development1,2, contain a 180-base pair (bp) DNA sequence, the homoeo box3–5, and that ...

    Also Ranks for: Homoeo Box |  chromosome mapping |  human mouse |  pattern formation |  dna sequence
    KOL Index score: 10824

    Development of the metanephric kidney crucially depends on proper interactions between cells and the surrounding extracellular matrix. For example, we showed previously that in the absence of alpha8beta1 integrin, invasion by the ureteric bud into the metanephric mesenchyme is inhibited, resulting in renal agenesis. Here we present genetic evidence that the extracellular matrix protein nephronectin is an essential ligand that engages alpha8beta1 integrin during early kidney development. ...

    Also Ranks for: Kidney Development |  gdnf expression |  metanephric mesenchyme |  alpha8beta1 integrin |  ureteric bud


    Gail R Martin: Influence Statistics

    Sample of concepts for which Gail R Martin is among the top experts in the world.
    Concept World rank
    aer fgf4 protein #1
    aerfgfs #1
    tyrannosaurus rex brontosaurus #1
    frozen tissue homogenates #1
    fgf8 failure #1
    ectoderm cells process #1
    fgf5 functions #1
    simple mechanism fgf4 #1
    limb inducer #1
    hox14 male #1
    hoxb1 hoxb4 #1
    shh78 #1
    localized evx1 #1
    allele fgf8 #1
    ver signals #1
    teratocarcinoma cells stages #1
    ridge fgf4 gene #1
    spry2 prostate #1
    branching process tree #1
    hox1 gene cluster #1
    mouse lines cre #1
    predicted null allele #1
    recessive lethal mutation #1
    fgf8 induces #1
    bmp2 aer #1
    hx homozygotes #1
    int2 cdnas #1
    dh en2 #1
    aif cerebellar #1
    signalling aer #1
    lectin inhibitors fucoidan #1
    fgf8 skeletal #1
    esc lines embryos #1
    morphologically normal node #1
    sites pax9 expression #1
    function fgf #1
    hoxb4 displaced #1
    maintained fgf4 #1
    distal mesenchyme elaboration #1
    germ layer mesoderm #1
    transgene active #1
    skeletal phenotypes functions #1
    functions chick #1
    enhancing cyp26b1 #1
    ver tail development #1

    Key People For Teratocarcinoma Stem Cells

    Top KOLs in the world
    Davor Solter
    monoclonal antibody mouse embryos nuclear transfer
    Gail R Martin
    teratocarcinoma stem cells gene expression mouse embryos
    John M Lehman
    simian virus flow cytometry dna content
    Douglas E Swartzendruber
    simian virus neoplastic differentiation dna content
    Barbara B Knowles
    cell lines human chromosome monoclonal antibody
    Ivan Damjanov
    germ cell monoclonal antibodies yolk sac
    Select a search phrase   teratocarcinoma stem cells

    Gail R Martin:Expert Impact

    Concepts for whichGail R Martinhas direct influence:Teratocarcinoma stem cells,  Sprouty genes,  Stem cells,  Gene expression,  Mouse embryos,  Stem cell,  Teratocarcinoma stem,  Hair growth cycle.

    Gail R Martin:KOL impact

    Concepts related to the work of other authors for whichfor which Gail R Martin has influence:Stem cells,  Gene expression,  Growth factor,  Cell differentiation,  Retinoic acid,  Heart failure,  Embryonic development.



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    Eli and Edythe Broad Center of Regeneration Medicine and Stem Cell Research, Diabetes Center, and, Department of Anatomy, UCSF, San Francisco, California, USA., CRUK/MRC Oxford Institute, Department of Oncology, University of Oxford, Oxford, United K