ARD1/NAA10 in hepatocellular carcinoma: pathways and clinical implications
. Hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC), a representative example of a malignancy with a poor prognosis, is characterized by high mortality because it is typically in an advanced stage at diagnosis and leaves very little hepatic functional reserve. Despite advances in medical and surgical techniques, there is no omnipotent tool that can diagnose HCC early and then cure it medically or surgically. Several recent studies have shown that a variety of pathways are involved in the development, growth, and even metastasis of HCC. Among a variety of cytokines or molecules, some investigators have suggested that arrest-defective 1 (ARD1), an acetyltransferase, plays a key role in the development of malignancies. Although ARD1 is thought to be centrally involved in the cell cycle, cell migration, apoptosis, differentiation, and proliferation, the role of ARD1 and its potential mechanistic involvement in HCC remain unclear. Here, we review the present literature on ARD1. First, we provide an overview of the essential structure, functions, and molecular mechanisms or pathways of ARD1 in HCC. Next, we discuss potential clinical implications and perspectives. We hope that, by providing new insights into ARD1, this review will help to guide the next steps in the development of markers for the early detection and prognosis of HCC.