CONGENITAL BOVINE EPIZOOTIC ARTHROGRYPOSIS AND HYDRANENCEPHALY
. Epizootics of congenital neurological defects in calves have been recorded at various intervals in south eastern New South Wales for over 40 years. In 1974 a particularly severe outbreak occurred. Field observations of the clinical entities, their time of appearance, distribution and incidence were recorded in an attempt to determine an epidemiological pattern. The neurological entities observed occupied different time spans in the epizootic, the order of appearance being polioencephalomyelitis, arthrogryposis, hydranencephaly and micrencephaly. The probable period of infection correlated well with the likely presence of Culiciodes brevitarsus in the epizootic area and the distribution and incidence of neurologic cases likewise correlated well with the expected geographical and climatic distribution of C. brevitarsus in this period. The probable association of Akabane virus infection and the outbreak of stillbirths and abortions which preceded the neurologic entities is discussed.