. BACKGROUND: Psoriasis is associated with several extracutaneous manifestations of which ocular complications are common. Signs and symptoms of ocular psoriasis may be subtle and overlooked. The dermatologic literature has generally underaddressed these complications; however, a thorough understanding of ophthalmic involvement is important to the comprehensive care of patients with psoriasis.
OBJECTIVE: We sought to provide a complete and up-to-date clinical guide on the manifestations and diagnostic considerations of ocular psoriasis.
METHODS: PubMed and Google Scholar were used to find primary resources. The MeSH database of PubMed was used to link key ocular terms with the words "psoriasis," "psoriatic arthritis," and/or various psoriasis medications.
RESULTS: Ocular manifestations of psoriasis are discussed anatomically to allow for easy clinical reference. Complications include direct cutaneous effects such as eyelid involvement and blepharitis, and immune-mediated conditions such as uveitis.
LIMITATIONS: Literature reviewed was primarily focused on English-language journals. In addition, older articles not included in the above electronic databases were underrepresented.
CONCLUSION: Ophthalmic complications of psoriasis are numerous and affect almost any part of the eye; however, they may be easily missed. Physicians should maintain a high index of suspicion that ophthalmic symptoms in patients with psoriasis may be related to their underlying disease, even though signs and symptoms are often vague. Screening and evaluation guidelines for ocular disease should be more clearly incorporated into the already large academic framework of psoriasis research and care.