Pathoanatomy of the Jones Fracture in Male University Soccer Players
. BACKGROUND: Jones fractures are relatively common in soccer players and require an extended recovery period because this type of fracture has a high incidence of delayed union, nonunion, and refracture. There has been some previous research on risk factors for Jones fracture, but no study has yet investigated the effect of the length of the fifth metatarsal bone and the positional relationship of the articular surface of the fifth metatarsal bones and the tarsal bones. Clarification of the characteristics of the foot structure that predispose soccer players to Jones fracture may aid in the prevention of this injury.
PURPOSE: To investigate the association between Jones fracture and foot structure as assessed with a mapping system on weightbearing dorsoplantar and lateral foot radiographs.
STUDY DESIGN: Cohort study; Level of evidence, 3.
METHODS: We used a mapping system to evaluate the radiographs of 60 feet from 30 university soccer players with Jones fractures and a control group of 60 feet from 60 male university soccer players without Jones fracture. The groups were compared regarding the length of the fifth metatarsal and the positions of the metatarsal and tarsal bones.
RESULTS: Analysis of weightbearing dorsoplantar foot radiographs showed that the fifth metatarsal was significantly longer and that its proximal tip was positioned more proximally in the Jones fracture group as compared with the control group. Analysis of weightbearing lateral foot radiographs showed that the reference points for the medial arch were significantly higher in the Jones fracture group than in the control group.
CONCLUSION: This study indicated that the proximally longer fifth metatarsal may cause greater stress at the base of the fifth metatarsal bone because the lever arm becomes long. In addition, high medial longitudinal arch may contribute to increased load on the lateral side of the foot. Thus, these anatomic features may be useful to identify soccer players at high risk of Jones fracture at medical checkup.