Peroral endoscopic myotomy for management of gastrointestinal motility disorder.
. Achalasia is a type of esophageal motility disorder, consisting of relaxation dysfunction of the lower esophagus and disturbed esophageal peristalsis. Related clinical symptoms include dysphagia, regurgitation, chest pain, and weight loss. Traditional treatment options include endoscopic botulinum toxin injection, endoscopic pneumatic dilation, and laparoscopic Heller's myotomy. These therapies mainly relieve symptoms by reducing the pressure on the lower esophageal sphincter and reducing blood flow resistance at the esophagogastric junction. Based on endoscopic submucosal dissection and natural orifice transluminal endoscopic surgery, peroral endoscopic myotomy (POEM) is a purely endoscopic method of myotomy with minimal invasiveness and a low rate of adverse events when performed by experienced operators. Since then, numerous studies have shown the significant clinical efficacy and safety of POEM. The purpose of this article is to introduce different modified POEMs, special indications for different POEMs, and their advantages as well as disadvantages.