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vocal nodules
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examination survey
proper management
voice disorder
physical activities
marital status

The prevalence and factors associate with vocal nodules in general population


The purpose of this study was to analyze the prevalence of vocal nodules and to identify factors related with an increased risk for vocal nodules.This study was conducted using data from the Korean National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey 2008 to 2011. The subjects consisted of 19,636 men and women aged ≥19 years. Related factors such as age, marital status, incomes, and education level were assessed in individual interviews, and health-related behaviors including smoking, alcohol, and activity were assessed with self-administered questionnaires. Also, examination survey such as laryngoscopy examination, basic physical examination, and blood sampling was conducted.The prevalence of vocal nodules was 1.31% (n = 258). Among variable factors, age, education level, and voice disorder were related with the presence of vocal nodules (P < 0.05). Other factors including sex, alcohol, smoking, physical activities, hypertension, obesity, waist circumference and metabolic syndrome, hypercholesterolemia, serum calcium, and vitamin D did not show any meaningful relationship with the presence of vocal nodules.This result may help reduce the incidence of vocal nodules and offer proper management for patients with vocal nodules, and may also facilitate efficient allocation of public health resources.

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