Facet Arthropathy

FACET ARTHROPATHY

Facet Arthropathy, also denoted as FA, is an arthritic condition that affects the functioning and structural integrity of the facet joints present in the spinal column. Facet Arthropathy may cause pain in certain spinal regions like the back and neck areas. Facet Arthropathy is one of the most frequent conditions diagnosed in facet pathology [2]. Aging which causes the wear and tear of facet joints or pressure trauma caused through the injury on the back could be an underlying reason behind the development of facet arthropathy.

This article has been medically reviewed by Marither Oropeza, MD — 2022-12-20

Facet Arthropathy Symptoms

1. One of the major symptoms in facet arthropathy include chronic pain that might be present at a certain spinal region.

2. The back pain becomes worse with sleep whereas there is some relief when bending or stretching the spine. However, putting pressure on the spine through twisting or heavy weights could worsen the symptoms.

3. Decreased motility or stiffness in the back or neck region depending on the type of area affected.

Types of Facet Arthropathy

Based on the anatomy of the pain and the underlying changes in the morphological structure of the spine, facet arthropathy could be divided into the following types:

Uncovertebral Hypertrophy

Uncovertebral hypertrophy is the enlargement of the uncovertebral joint which is a tiny synovial joint that extends from the lower cervical vertebrae to the superior vertebral body. Commonly known as Luschka’s joint, an uncovertebral joint is one of the common targets for spur growth as well as degeneration of the spine. It is responsible for the controlling of neck muscles and therefore its enlargement in uncovertebral hypertrophy affects the neck region. Its prevalence causes pain in the neck region and stiffness in the neck movement.

What are Facet (Zygapophyseal) Joints

Facet joints are also known as zygapophyseal joints. A spine consists of vertebrae that features facet joints of two sets. Superior articular facet is the one pair which faces along the upward direction whereas inferior articular facet is another pair that faces towards the downward direction. The facet joints are responsible for the basic function of aligning the vertebrae and stabilizing motions like twisting, alignment and bending of the back spine through counterbalancing the vertebrae’s discs and reducing friction between the bones. In simpler terms, facets are rear regions located at the back of the spine where the joints merge or meet.

Facet Hypertrophy

It is a process in which the facet joints get enlarged that in turn results in the stiffness of the spine responsible for a decline in the functioning of back motion. Its symptoms include pain in the posterior back region and a decrease in the motility of back movements like bending and aligning. However, the pain gets worse after certain movements of the spine like its rotation or extension. Majorly, it is caused due to aging and there are no proper treatment methodologies that could completely eradicate its symptoms.

Bilateral Facet Arthropathy

The two major components of a spine include discs and bones. The region consisting of bones are known as facets and the point at which they connect are known as facet joints. Each facet consists of facet joints that are located on its right and left side. The bilateral facet joints are responsible for transferring pressure loads and are responsible for guiding and constraining motions in the spine as a result of their geometry [3]. Bilateral facet arthropathy implies that there are certain discrepancies causing the enlargement of facet joints on both sides which results in more severe back pain that might have more regions covered in pain.

Lumbar Facet Arthropathy

Lumbar facet joints are present in the posterior region of the spinal axis and consist of highly connecting joint capsules. The degeneration process that causes anatomical or functional changes to lumbar facet joints is known as lumbar facet arthropathy. It typically occurs as a result of obesity, age, overuse of the posterior region, high pressure on joints or poor body mechanics which might be a result of genetics [1]. It is one of the most common sources of pain and accounts for 15 to 45% of pain caused by facet arthropathy [2].

Facet Arthropathy Diagnosis and Treatment

Facet arthropathy could be diagnosed using X-rays, CT scans, bone scans or MRIs[4] in order to get an idea regarding the location and the severity of the affected areas in the spine. Currently, there are no specific oral treatment methodologies that could completely eradicate facet arthropathy. However, maintaining a certain lifestyle that aims on maintaining proper weight and specific physiological exercise could help in controlling its symptoms. Pain caused due to facet arthropathy could be managed through anti-inflammatory drugs like ibuprofen or muscle relaxants like metaxalone. Surgical methods could be used to correct the structural deformities caused due to facet arthropathy that could in turn help in controlling the offset of pain caused by facet arthropathy. Radiofrequency ablation that uses heat to destroy pain nerves could also be used to treat the symptoms of facet arthropathy. Also, cryoneurolysis technique that aims to cause deterioration of the nerve causing pain could also be used to treat facet arthropathy [2].


Facet Arthropathy - References

  1. ^ Mann S. et. al. (2022). Lumbar Facet Arthropathy. Statpearls. Retrieved 31 Oct 2022.
  2. ^ Perolat R. et. al. (2018). Facet joint syndrome: from diagnosis to interventional management. Insights Imaging, 9(5), pp. 773–789. https://doi.org/10.1007%2Fs13244-018-0638-x. Retrieved 31 Oct 2022.
  3. ^ PNicholas J., et. al. (2011). Spinal Facet Joint Biomechanics and Mechanotransduction in Normal, Injury and Degenerative Conditions. The Journal of Biomechanical Engineering, 133(7), pp. 71010–NaN https://doi.org/10.1115%2F1.4004493. Retrieved 31 Oct 2022.
  4. ^ Juerg Hodler, et. al. (2011). The Reliability of Computed Tomography and Magnetic Resonance Imaging Grading of Lumbar Facet Arthropathy in Total Disc Replacement Patients. Retrieved 31 Oct 2022.
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This article has been medically reviewed by Marither Oropeza, MD — 2022-12-20

Who are the top experts researching treatments for facet arthropathy?

The top experts researching facet arthropathy are: Jaroslav Plas, Wenchun Qu and Bhadresh Bhakta.

What are the top concepts researched in studies about facet arthropathy?

The most researched concepts in studies of facet arthropathy are: Chronic Pain, Computed Tomography, Lumbar Disc, Spinal Stenosis, Magnetic Resonance, Cervical Spine and Medial Branch.



What are some of the top places that specialize in facet arthropathy?

Recommended institutions that specialize in facet arthropathy:

Modern Orthopedics 555 Knowles Dr #200, Los Gatos, CA 95032 Phone: +14083530203

Brooklyn Premier Orthopedics 1414 Newkirk Ave, Brooklyn, NY 11226 Phone: +17187596100

Total Orthopaedics Highgate Private Hospital, 17-19 View Road, London N6 4DJ, United Kingdom Phone: +442030511111

Sakurai Orthopedic Surgical Clinic 1 Chome-15-6 Yutenji, Meguro City, Tokyo 153-0052, Japan Phone: +81357238166

Facet Arthropathy

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This article has been medically reviewed by Marither Oropeza, MD — 2022-12-20
Barbara J Wallis #1
Barbara J Wallis
David Madison Building, Royal Newcastle Hospital, Newcastle, NSW 2300, Australia | Cervical Spine Research Unit, Faculty of Medicine and Health Sciences, The University of ...
Juxtafacet Cysts | Patient Outcome | Resection Lumbar | Follow Studies | Ligamentum Flavum
Susan M Lord #2
Susan M Lord
Division of Anaesthesia, Intensive Care & Pain Management, John Hunter Hospital, Locked Bag 1, Hunter Region Mail Centre, New South Wales, 2310, Australia | Director, Sports, ...
Juxtafacet Cysts | Patient Outcome | Resection Lumbar | Follow Studies | Ligamentum Flavum
Richard Joseph Herzog #3
Richard Joseph Herzog
Hospital for Special Surgery, New York, NY. | Department of Radiology, Hospital for Special Surgery, New York, NY ‡‡ | Hospital for Special Surgery, 535 E. 70th St, New York, ...
Juxtafacet Cysts | Patient Outcome | Resection Lumbar | Follow Studies | Ligamentum Flavum
Loretta H Pearson #4
Loretta H Pearson
Geisel School of Medicine, Hanover, NH. | Geisel School of Medicine at Dartmouth The Dartmouth Institute for Health Policy and Clinical Practice Lebanon NH U.S.A | Geisel ...
Juxtafacet Cysts | Patient Outcome | Resection Lumbar | Follow Studies | Ligamentum Flavum
Margaret R Grove #5
Margaret R Grove
Geisel School of Medicine at Dartmouth, 1 Rope Ferry Road, Hanover, NH 03755. E-mail address for T.S. Morgan: tamara.s.morgan@dartmouth.edu. | Dartmouth Institute for Health ...
Juxtafacet Cysts | Patient Outcome | Resection Lumbar | Follow Studies | Ligamentum Flavum
Jay A Kaiser #6
Jay A Kaiser
National Orthopaedic Imaging Associates, Greenbrae, CA; and | From the *Department of Medicine; †Department of Community and Family Medicine; ...
Juxtafacet Cysts | Patient Outcome | Resection Lumbar | Follow Studies | Ligamentum Flavum
Leslie Barnsley #7
Leslie Barnsley
Associate Professor, Department of Physical Medicine and Rehabilitation, University of Medicine and Dentistry of New Jersey–New Jersey Medical School, Newark, New Jersey | ...
Juxtafacet Cysts | Patient Outcome | Resection Lumbar | Follow Studies | Ligamentum Flavum
Christian Hellum #8
Christian Hellum
From Kysthospitalet in Hagevik, Orthopedic Department, Haukeland University Hospital (I.M.A., E.H., F.R., K.I.), and the Department of Clinical Medicine, University of Bergen ...
Juxtafacet Cysts | Patient Outcome | Resection Lumbar | Follow Studies | Ligamentum Flavum
Oliver Grundnes #9
Oliver Grundnes
From Kysthospitalet in Hagevik, Orthopedic Department, Haukeland University Hospital (I.M.A., E.H., F.R., K.I.), and the Department of Clinical Medicine, University of Bergen ...
Juxtafacet Cysts | Patient Outcome | Resection Lumbar | Follow Studies | Ligamentum Flavum
Lars Gunnar Johnsen #10
Lars Gunnar Johnsen
Department of Neuromedicine and Movement Science, Norwegian University of Science and Technology, Trondheim, Norway | Department of Orthopaedic Surgery, St. Olav’s University ...
Juxtafacet Cysts | Patient Outcome | Resection Lumbar | Follow Studies | Ligamentum Flavum
Gesche F Neckelmann #11
Gesche F Neckelmann
Department of Radiology, Haukeland University Hospital, Jonas Liesvei 65, 5021, Bergen, Norway | Department of Radiology, Haukeland University Hospital, Bergen, Norway | ...
Juxtafacet Cysts | Patient Outcome | Resection Lumbar | Follow Studies | Ligamentum Flavum
Alfred Campbell Gellhorn #12
Alfred Campbell Gellhorn
Department of Physical Medicine and Rehabilitation, Weill Cornell Medical Center, New York, New York, USA | Department of Rehabilitation Medicine, Weill Cornell Medicine, New ...
Juxtafacet Cysts | Patient Outcome | Resection Lumbar | Follow Studies | Ligamentum Flavum
Øivind Gjertsen #13
Øivind Gjertsen
Dept. of Radiology and Nuclear Medicine, Oslo University Hospital - Rikshospitalet, Oslo, Norway | Department of Radiology and Nuclear Medicine (Ø.G., B.N. R.S., G.R.), Oslo ...
Juxtafacet Cysts | Patient Outcome | Resection Lumbar | Follow Studies | Ligamentum Flavum
Linda Berg #14
Linda Berg
Department of Radiology, Nordland Hospital, Postbox 1480, 8092, Bodø, Norway | Department of Clinical Medicine, Faculty of Health Sciences, University of Tromsø, 9037, Tromsø, ...
Juxtafacet Cysts | Patient Outcome | Resection Lumbar | Follow Studies | Ligamentum Flavum
Ansgar Espeland #15
Ansgar Espeland
Department of Radiology, Haukeland University Hospital, Bergen, Norway | Department of Radiology, Haukeland University Hospital, Jonas Liesvei 65, 5021 Bergen, Norway | ...
Juxtafacet Cysts | Patient Outcome | Resection Lumbar | Follow Studies | Ligamentum Flavum
Anne Keller #16
Anne Keller
Center for Rheumatology and Spine Diseases, National Hospital, 2600, Glostrup, Denmark | Department of Physical Medicine and Rehabilitation, Oslo University Hospital Ullevål, ...
Juxtafacet Cysts | Patient Outcome | Resection Lumbar | Follow Studies | Ligamentum Flavum
Tai Friesem #17
Tai Friesem
Chairmen of Orthopedic Surgery, Soroka University Medical Center, Ben-Gurion University of the Negev, Be’er Sheva, Israel | Senior Lecturer, Orthopaedic Department, Soroka ...
Juxtafacet Cysts | Patient Outcome | Resection Lumbar | Follow Studies | Ligamentum Flavum
John A Bendo #18
John A Bendo
NYU Langone Orthopedic Hospital, New York, NY, US | Department of Orthopaedics, NYU Langone Orthopedic Hospital, New York, New York. | Department of Orthopedics, NYU Langone ...
Juxtafacet Cysts | Patient Outcome | Resection Lumbar | Follow Studies | Ligamentum Flavum
Jonathan R Stieber #19
Jonathan R Stieber
Department of Orthopaedics, NYU Langone Orthopedic Hospital, New York, New York. | Hospital for Joint Diseases, NYU Langone Health, New York, NY, USA | Department of ...
Juxtafacet Cysts | Patient Outcome | Resection Lumbar | Follow Studies | Ligamentum Flavum
Mary R Cunningham #20
Mary R Cunningham
From the *Department of Orthopaedic Surgery, NYU Hospital for Joint Diseases, NY, New York; and †Orthopedics International–Spine, Seattle, WA. | From the *St. ...
Juxtafacet Cysts | Patient Outcome | Resection Lumbar | Follow Studies | Ligamentum Flavum
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This article has been medically reviewed by Marither Oropeza, MD — 2022-12-20

The Reliability Of Computed Tomography And Magnetic Resonance Imaging Grading Of...

.. of facet arthropathy as well as determining whether there is a contraindication to total disc replacement (TDR).

SUMMARY OF BACKGROUND DATA: Several classifications attempted to evaluate ...

Facet Arthropathy | Computed Tomography | Magnetic Resonance | Intervertebral Disc | Reliability Mri

Adjacent Level Degeneration And Facet Arthropathy After Disc Prosthesis Surgery...

.. level facet arthropathy (FA) in patients treated with disc prosthesis compared with patients treated with rehabilitation.

SUMMARY OF BACKGROUND DATA: There is controversy about the natural ...

Disc Prosthesis | Facet Arthropathy | Chronic Low | Adjacent Level | Pain Lumbar

Lumbar Spine: Reliability Of Mr Imaging Findings1

PURPOSE: To characterize the inter- and intraobserver variability of qualitative, non-disk contour degenerative findings of the lumbar spine at magnetic resonance (MR) imaging.

MATERIALS AND ...

Lumbar Spine | Disk Degeneration | Facet Arthropathy | Intraobserver Agreement | Magnetic Resonance

Use Of Computed Tomography-Single-Photon Emission Computed Tomography Fusion For...

Facet disease is believed to play a major role in axial low-back pain and may prove in the future to be an important indication for posterior dynamic stabilization. However, the lack of good ...

Computed Tomography | Photon Emission | Facet Arthropathy | Spect Imaging | Lumbar Spine

Magnetic Resonance Image-Based Morphological Predictors Of Single Photon Emission...

OBJECTIVE: A major barrier to understanding facetogenic low back pain has been the lack of radiographic diagnostic criteria. This study investigates the correlation between radiographic ...

Single Photon | Emission Computed | Magnetic Resonance | Lumbar Facet | Axial Pain

Fat‐saturated Mr Imaging In The Detection Of Inflammatory Facet Arthropathy...

OBJECTIVE: The objectives of the study were: to illustrate the magnetic resonance (MR) imaging appearance of facet synovitis in the lumbar region using an MR fat-saturation technique; to ...

Lumbar Spine | Magnetic Resonance | Imaging Detection | Inflammatory Facet | Fat Saturation

Efficacy Of Needle-Placement Technique In Radiofrequency Ablation For Treatment...

BACKGROUND: Many studies have assessed the efficacy of radiofrequency ablation to denervate the facet joint as an interventional means of treating axial low-back pain. In these studies, ...

Radiofrequency Ablation | Pain Relief | Lumbar Facet | Procedural Techniques | Needle Placement

Cervical Facet Arthropathy And Occipital Neuralgia: Headache Culprits

.. cervical facet arthropathy and occipital neuralgia. Clinical diagnosis is difficult because of the overlying features between primary headaches such as migraine, tension-type headache, and ...

Occipital Neuralgia | Cervical Facet | Cervicogenic Headache | Vertebrae Humans | Post Traumatic

Reliability Of Mri Findings In Candidates For Lumbar Disc Prosthesis

.. and facet arthropathy at L3/L4, L4/L5 and L5/S1. Two radiologists rerated 126 examinations. For each MRI finding at each disc level, agreement was analysed using the kappa statistic and ...

Disc Prosthesis | Mri Findings | L4 L5 | Facet Arthropathy | Resonance Imaging

Multicenter, Randomized, Comparative Cost-Effectiveness Study Comparing 0, 1, And...

.. pain, facet arthropathy accounts for approximately 10-15% of cases. Facet interventions are the second most frequently performed procedures in pain clinics across the United States. ...

Radiofrequency Denervation | Lumbar Facet | 3 Months | Joint Nerve | Patients Groups

Viscosupplementation In Lumbar Facet Joint Arthropathy

.. lumbar facet arthropathy is intra-articular injection of local anesthetic and steroid. However, in large joints, such as the knee, viscosupplementation has been shown to compare favorably ...

Facet Joint | Pain Lumbar | Hyaluronic Acid | Intra Articular | Disability Questionnaire

Magnetic Resonance Imaging Of The Lumbar Spine In People Without Back Pain

BACKGROUND: The relation between abnormalities in the lumbar spine and low back pain is controversial. We examined the prevalence of abnormal findings on magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) scans ...

Lumbar Spine | People Pain | Resonance Imaging | Prevalence Findings | Intervertebral Disk

Lumbar Disc Arthroplasty

.. posterior facet arthropathy and adjacent segment disease.

PURPOSE: The purpose of this

Lumbar Disc Arthroplasty | Disc Height | Pain Relief | Spinal Motion | New Technology

Radiofrequency Medial Branch Neurotomy In Litigant And Nonlitigant Patients With...

STUDY DESIGN: The efficacy of radiofrequency medial branch neurotomy to treat cervical zygapophysial joint pain from whiplash was compared prospectively in litigants and ...

Medial Branch | 1 Year | Treatment Whiplash | Pain Cervical | Background Data

Mri Findings In The Lumbar Spines Of Asymptomatic, Adolescent, Elite Tennis Players

OBJECTIVE: To describe magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) findings in the lumbar spine in asymptomatic elite adolescent tennis players, to serve as the baseline for a future prospective ...

Lumbar Spine | Mri Findings | Elite Tennis | Disc Degeneration | L5 S1

Indirect Foraminal Decompression Is Independent Of Metabolically Active Facet...

.. active facet arthropathy (FA) and the amount of indirect foraminal decompression gained after extreme lateral interbody fusion (XLIF).

SUMMARY OF BACKGROUND DATA: Although evidence of ...

Foraminal Decompression | Interbody Fusion | Extreme Lateral | Posterior Disc Height | Background Data

Do More Mri Findings Imply Worse Disability Or More Intense Low Back Pain? A...

ObjectiveTo examine whether combined magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) findings are related to the degree of disability and low back pain (LBP) in candidates for lumbar disc prosthesis ...

Mri Findings | Lumbar Disc | L5 S1 | Pain Lbp | Modic Type

Reliability Of Change In Lumbar Mri Findings Over Time In Patients With And...

.. and facet arthropathy (FA) at L3/L4, L4/L5, and L5/S1, both by non-comparison and by comparison of initial and follow-up images. FA was evaluated at all levels, and other findings at ...

Disc Prosthesis | Interobserver Agreement | Mri Findings | Lumbar Magnetic | Longitudinal Studies

Advances In The Diagnosis And Management Of Neck Pain

Neck pain imposes a considerable personal and socioeconomic burden-it is one of the top five chronic pain conditions in terms of prevalence and years lost to disability-yet it receives a ...

Neck Pain | Spinal Manipulation | Cervical Radiculopathy | Conservative Treatment | Clinical Observation

Patient Outcome After Resection Of Lumbar Juxtafacet Cysts

STUDY DESIGN: Retrospective review of patients who underwent lumbar juxtafacet cyst resection with questionnaire follow-up.

OBJECTIVES: Determine the long-term outcome after resection of ...

Juxtafacet Cysts | Patient Outcome | Resection Lumbar | Follow Studies | Ligamentum Flavum
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